More than 40 years have passed since the most important and most powerful man in New York City and New York State politics was removed. 40 years later the political and social state of the city and state of New York is worst now than it was then. The once most progressive city and state of the world has become a bastion of reaction. A city and state once world renowned for human rights and social justice is now a place devoid of anything. A city and state which between the 1920s to the mid 1990s had prioritised the welfare of it’s poorest and most marginalised citizens is now a place where the poor and the non-white are being driven out.

Robert Moses was the man who single-handedly built New York City and made it the greatest city in the history of the world. Robert Moses was the greatest builder in the history of humankind. With the notable exception of theAustrian Socialists of the First Republic, no other person did more for the poor and working classes in the Western world as Robert Moses. Yet, funny enough, Moses remains the most maligned name in the history of the city and the state. Indeed, one can find millions of supporters of Rudolph Giuliani , who remains the most anti-democratic, dictatorial and reactionary politician ever witnessed on the western shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Giuliani was a man who took away human rights, destroyed democracy and kicked the majority of the city’s poor out of New York. Giuliani was a man who single-handedly disenfranchised New York’s Black and Puerto Rican population of political, social and cultural autonomy. Yet Giuliani is hailed as the greatest mayor of New York.

The point of this essay is not to assail Giuliani. His political career is thankfully over. This essay is to make the case for Robert Moses. A man who contrary to Giuliani helped to create the most Social Democratic and just city in the United States. A person, though racist and full of contempt for Blacks and Puerto Ricans, did more to create the best city in the Western world for Blacks to live until the arrival of Giuliani in 1994. This essay will make the argument that Robert Moses, despite many flaws which will will be highlighted, made New York City and New York State a much more humane and egalitarian society, than any other politician in both the city and state since the past 40 years.

There are a couple of motivations behind this essay. A couple of years ago, during a brief sojourn in Boston , I was given a book about Moses as a birthday present. The book’s entitled The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York by Robert A. Caro published in 1974. The book was a graduate level political and social history about New York. Another motivation for this essay arose out of weariness from hearing complaints and put-downs of Robert Moses. Caro’s book has largely influenced this sentiment. The most common complaint was that Moses did nothing for the city except to build highways which no one wanted and in the course of building these, he destroyed the city. This is true to an extent. This essay will highlight that. It is true that Moses was responsible for the destruction of The Bronx, which cannot be defended. This essay will not defend the most obvious and treacherous deeds of Moses. However, Moses did many brilliant things for the city, which he is still attacked for. I will defend Moses for his true and remarkable achievements even though they will defy the conventional wisdom of informed New York opinion.

The essay will make the argument that a political figure like Giuliani would have been impossible had Robert Moses still been around. Indeed, Giuliani and his successor Michael Bloomberg are the direct consequences of New York City in the post-Moses era. It would have been very interesting to observe the full scale war between Giuliani and Moses. However, that is beside the point.

Finally, the essay is to disprove once and for all, the right wing argument about the decline of New York fro the 1960s through 1980s, was the result of liberal “communist” social and economic policies. It has been the mantra of the Neo-Consevatives that New York went bankrupt because of its generous welfare and social spending policies. Here is where the argument is most interesting. New York’s economic decline was primarily, though not exclusively, the fault of Robert Moses. It was Moses, with his grandiose projects, which drove the city to economic ruin. If there is anything really to find fault with Moses, it is that point. It is however, the complete opposite of the fiction that liberal social spending led to New York’s economic decline.


Robert Moses was born in New Haven, CT to a middle class family. Though the name would seem obvious, Moses vigorously denied that he was Jewish. Indeed, if he was ever called or identified as Jewish, Moses would fly into a violent rage. He was often branded a self-hating Jew by many New York Jews. He was accused of renouncing his Jewish heritage in order to be assimilated and accepted into white Christian society. Whether this was so or not is not important to this essay but clears the air in case the reader assumes that Moses was a Jew.

Moses attended his undergraduate years at Yale University . He attended Graduate School at Oxford in England . At Oxford he studied Public and Government Administration. Before the First World War, Britain was at its peak as the largest and most powerful empire the world had known since Rome. To administer a global empire, Britain had the largest civil service in the world. The British Empire was considered to have the best civil service and public administration at the time.

Britain, like so many other modern institutions, invented the concept of the “Public Authority.” The “Public Authority” was a large autonomous bureaucracy within the Civil Service loosely connected to politicians or government ministers. The heads of the Public Authorities were appointed by a Minister when the top post was empty, but the Authority had lots of political autonomy. The BBC is the most obvious example of a British Public Authority.

Moses’ British education played a decisive role in his future as the most important figure in New York City and State politics. Moses imported the concept of the “Public Authority” into the United States. However, he was influenced by the British Ruling Class elites who attended Oxford. Many of his classmates shared a disdain for the lower classes and had extremely racist attitudes toward colonial subjects. Indeed, many of Moses’ peers were in training to be Viceroys and Governors in South Asia, Africa, China and the West Indies.

The imperial and dictatorial manner which would later become his characteristic in running New York, as well as his contempt for Black and lower class people can most likely be traced back to his training at Oxford. Yet, unlike his Oxford peers who sided with the white ruling class unconditionally, Moses would show his disdain for all people from all races and classes. As we shall see, Moses took over the City and State of New York by destroying the Robber Baron rich elites of New York.


A film on Robert Moses would be most interesting if it highlighted the contradictions of a brilliant yet flawed character. The first of many contradictions of Robert Moses was that even though he hated the working class people of New York, he helped to orchestrate the political rise of the working class in State Politics while breaking the political monopoly of the rich ruling class. As we shall see, Robert Moses had no allegiance to any class, race or anybody else for that matter. Moses was out only for himself and for absolute power.

Al Smith was a New York City Councillor and State Assemblyman before becoming Governor of the New York State. He was a product of the corrupt and crooked and criminal Tammany Hall Democrat Party of New York, whose last vestiges were ultimately asassinated by Rudy Giuliani in the 1980s. Smith was an Irish immigrant who settled into New York’s Lower East Side. Tammany Hall had built a political empire in New York City, by giving jobs to thousands of immigrants who faced racial discrimination at the hands of the “Native” white Protestants who controlled the New York economy. In other words, Tammany Hall bought the votes of white ethnic immigrants in the city. Tammany Hall controlled not only City Hall but practically all the State-wide seats in New York City. Most of the Assemblymen and State Senators elected from the city to Albany were from the Tammany Hall machine.

Without doubt, Tammany Hall was a criminal organisation. However, it did very much for the white non-protestant immigrants, that all of its politicians were elected despite a string of indictments and convictions. Most residents of New York didn’t care whether or not their elected figures were ethical or not. The politicians knew their constituents personally. Many of Tammany Hall politicians were often seen every night in the saloons and other working class social centres drinking, smoking and laughing with their constituents. The Tammany Hall politicians knew their constituents on a first name basis and knew their families as well. People were aware if they ever needed to get a loan or find a temporary job to earn quick cash, they only had to drop into their neighbourhood Democrat office and ask. The only condition was that they registered Democrat. So even if the politicians were indicted or convicted for operating illegal gambling or prostitution rings or for bribery; their constituents were not the in the least troubled. Needless to say, this irked and raised the indignation of the Protestant elites and other circles of sober puritan patricians.

After losing a close election as Mayor of New York, Tammany quickly found Al Smith a job as an Assemblyman. In the state capital Albany , Smith quickly learned the tricks of the trade. He realised that the key to passing legislation was in the written language of a proposed bill. This remains true to this day not only in New York State but on the Federal Level as well. So many wretched laws are passed every day in the US because of clever and deceitful language. Many laws, such as the Real ID Act of 2005, are tucked away in budgetary or other miscellaneous legislation which escapes detection.

Al Smith was a rare politician of his time and today. He actually read every word of 200 page bills which were presented for voting. Today most state legislators, as well as members of Congress and the Senate do not bother the read the details of proposed legislation. Most bills are vetted in committees which only the leader ever bothers to scrutinise. Most laws which pass committee are brought to the general floor. The leaders of the political majority and opposition assign their legislative whips to tell the members to vote yes or no, without most of the members even knowing what they are passing or defeating.

Smith became very quick and learnt the ropes of bill writing. He became known as “The Best Bill Drafter in Albany.” However, as a Democrat in a Republican controlled State Government he had little power. New York City was a Tammany Hall dictatorship. New York State was a Republican Party dictatorship. Al Smith convinced Tammany Hall, that it could expand its political empire throughout the Empire State if he ran for Governor. By all odds, he won the race and became New York’s first Democrat Governor since the Civil War. Now Tammany Hall controlled not only New York City Hall but the 2nd floor of the New York Statehouse as well.

Smith wanted to bring real substantial changes for the State’s working class. The election campaign was rather nasty as the Republicans used reactionary tactics against him by race-baiting that he was Irish. They attacked him for his Catholicism and called his a papist. Finally, they tried to smear him for being working class. Tammany Hall, with its overwhelming Catholic base in the State’s largest city, effectively put Smith into the Governor’s chair.

Smith had a problem. The Republicans still controlled the legislature. The legislature was determined to obstruct and defeat any initiative put forward by Smith. This is where Robert Moses made his entrance.

“The Best Bill Drafter in Albany”

For Al Smith, the biggest misery that the New York working class faced was the lack of recreational facilities. Anyone who has spent a summer in New York can attest to the misery of the city. Most of the city’s working class had to settle for swimming in the polluted waters of the East River to refresh themselves. There were a lack of public swimming facilities in New York City. Central Park remained an elite playground for the city’s rich.

New York was an over-crowded city which was slowly being relieved by the expansion of the subway system to the outer boroughs of The Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens. To escape the suffocating heat and crowds of the city, the few working class people who could afford cars, drove out to Long Island for greener pastures and waters of Long Island Sound and the Atlantic.

There were two main obstacles that working class people faced. There were no highways between the city and Nassau and Suffolk counties of Long Island. There was only one road. It took hours to get out of the city and the roads were clogged. Once they were able to get out of the city, there was no place to rest. Long Island was the private property and feudal dominions of the Robber Baron ruling class. The shore of Long Island Sound was owned by dozens of Robber Barons. The meadows and wooded areas were also the private property of the ruling class elites.

When the working class would pull to a secluded and shaded stretch, police with guns and clubs would shoot and beat them up for trespassing. The same occurred when working class people had the audacity to swim in the private waters of Long Island Sound. It was not surprising that the ruling class elites felt threatened by thousands of working class trying to find relief from the city.

A political advisor to Smith recruited Robert Moses to solve the political problem. Smith and Moses took an immediate liking to each other, which was strange giving their mutual antipathy to the classes opposite to which they belonged. However, both men saw that they could use each other for their own purposes.

Smith explained that he wanted to build public parks and beaches for the city’s working classes. The Robber Barons were Republicans. The Long Island Republican party had controlled and dominated State politics until Smith’s remarkable win. Still, they controlled the legislature. Moses was most eager to help.

Moses came up with the idea to create a State Park and Beach Commission. It was the first Public Authority ever to be conceived of in the United States. Moses came up with a draft bill which Smith with his clever mind found ingenious. Robert Moses proposed to create the Long Island Beach Commission. The Commission would have the power to build parks and beaches all across Long Island. The Commission would have the full and extensive power of the State. Smith agreed to the plan.

Moses wrote the draft bill in the shrewdest manner. It was a bill more than 200 pages long. In the early pages of the bill, it appeared that the Governor would have the power to appoint the Commissioner of the Beach authority. It also suggested that the Authority would be under the control of the State. However, near the end of the drafted bill, it gave the Beach Commissioner absolute power and control which would not be subject to the jurisdiction of the Governor or State Legislature.

In essence, Moses created a parallel State. However, the details of were buried so far in the draft that it escaped detection. A grateful Smith appointed Moses Commissioner of the Long Island Beach Commission. A position Moses would occupy for more than 40 years.


Moses was well aware that he had the power of God in his hands set out to work. He created the most elaborate system of public parks, beaches and highways the United States had ever seen. He had several ideas in the mind. First, he needed to get the land to build the State Parks and Beaches. Second, he needed to build a network of highways to get the masses of the city out to Long Island. He developed plans to build 14 State Parks in Western, Central and Eastern Long Island as well as the North and South Shores.

When Robert Moses looked on a map, he didn’t see people. He only saw empty spaces to build upon. It didn’t occur to him nor did it faze him in the least that the parks and beaches he wanted to develop were on the property of the richest and most powerful people in the United States. He had in mind to build the biggest parks to accommodate the millions of New York City residents who would use them.

The law which created the Long Island Beach Commission gave him unlimited power. It gave him more power than the State itself. When the Republican Robber Barons got wind of Moses’ plans they quickly tried to oppose him. He laughed in their faces and told them to go to Hell. He proceeded to declare all the lands to be confiscated and cleared in the name of “emminent domain”. Emminent Domain is a legal term used by municipal, State and Federal governments to take over private land and property for any use that they see fit.

The Robber Barons were not only incensed but in shock. How dare some unknown civil servant take over their property? To add insult to injury, he told them that they had no say over the matter at all. The Republicans who had passed the law creating the Long Island Beach Commission were convinced that they had the legal means to stop Moses. They told him that he was subject to the will of the State government. Moses laughed at them and told them to re-read the law.

To their utter astonishment, they realised that Moses was right. Moses as Commissioner of the Long Island Beach Commission could do what ever we wanted regarding the building of parks. Suddenly, thousands of acres of pristine land were snatched out of the hands of the Robber Barons. The Republicans complained and appealed to Governor Smith, who was not in any mood to hear it. It was sweet revenge and it was class warfare.

A delegation of Robber Barons went to Moses’ office in New York City to beg and plead with him. Moses, by all accounts was a nasty man. He seemed to hate everyone besides his wife and his coterie of assistants who were simply yes men and of course Al Smith. He not only insulted and rudely cursed out the Robber Barons; he also kicked them out of his office by physically threatening them.

In his book on Moses, Robert A. Caro recounts dozens of incidents throughout Moses’ career where he not only threatened people with physical harm but actually injured a few of them. Moses had a violent temper. He was a large man with a strong physique. No one except for a prize fighter could beat him in a fight, and no one dared to challenge him.

Never before had the Ruling Class elites been insulted, mistreated, abused and spit upon as Robert Moses had done to them. After all, they had long been used to politicians and State Officials in subservience to them. Things were only going to get worse for them.

When Moses announced his plans to build highways through the private lands of the Robber Barons, they quickly realised that they were facing the greatest threat to their wealth and power. The Republican Legislature quickly passed legislation to prevent the building of highways on Long Island. Smith vetoed the bill. In a rare move, the Legislature was able to override Smith’s veto. The Robber Barons thought they had at least won half the war. Moses might be able to take their land to build parks and beaches, but they were sure that without any highways, the masses of the city would be unable to use them

They were wrong. Moses simply altered his plans slightly. Rather than name them highways, they were named parkways. Since they had the word “park” in them and they were State projects, they fell under the domain of the Beach and Park authority. Robert Moses added little knolls of grass and a few bushes and shrubs next to the roads thus magically transforming them into Parkways.

The Robber Barons were horrified. There was no way to stop Moses. There was no legal recourse. Finally, the Robber Barons tried to wine and dine Moses. At a large working dinner, they convinced Moses to build his Parkways along the borders of their lands. Rather than cutting right in the heart of their lands, they looked at Real Estate maps to divide the sections which bordered one property to the next. Moses, with his British upper class sentiments was open to compromise. He would build the Parkways on the borders. He would also build fences between the parkways and the private property. He would ensure that the Beach and Park Authority Police, which he controlled, would prevent motorist from stopping in case they had the idea to trespass on the land. Finally, in properties that were still in the way of his roads, he would build overpasses above the parkways so that the Robber Barons could still ride horseback on their land.

The Robber Barons were lucky that they did not lose it all. However, their close brush with death signalled the end of their political domination over New York. The New York State Ruling Class suffered a setback which lasted for 40 years until they were able to regain control of the State politically in the 1960s with the election of Nelson Rockefeller.


What was most remarkable about Robert Moses was his ability to make enemies. He amassed so many enemies amongst the most powerful men in the United States over a 40 year period. He had defeated all of them except two. His biggest nemesis and the one who nearly destroyed him on two occasions was Franklin Delano Roosevelt , known in this article by his initials FDR.

I only mention their epic battles for two reasons. The first reason is that it’s a great political story about the two greatest political titans of American history. Never before and never since has there been a more epic political feud in American history as between these two men. They were after all, the two greatest political minds and figures in the United States.

The second reason why I mention it is that it’s a funny story and to show just how lucky Moses was. Moses almost lost it all. His war with FDR almost killed him physically. Had FDR defeated Moses in 1936, New York would have turned out differently.

Al Smith was the most progressive Governor that New York and quite arguably the United States ever had. He was the father of New York and American Social Democracy . He created the State University of New York public system which offered free tuition until Nelson Rockefeller became Governor in the 1960s. New York was the first state in the country to introduce public welfare. There were many other progressive achievements under Smith which go beyond the scope of this essay. Robert Moses actually drafted and wrote most of these laws for Smith.

Smith vacated the Governor’s office to run for President in 1928 which he lost. Smith was succeeded by Franklin Delano Roosevelt. FDR and Moses hated each other on sight. FDR saw Moses as a Smith crony. FDR liked Smith but wanted to have his own administration.

When FDR arrived in Albany, he observed how Moses walked about town and the Statehouse as if he owned everything. Moses was used to entering the Governor’s office as he liked and when he wanted. FDR told him that he was now the boss and knocked Moses down a few notches. FDR kept Moses waiting outside his office for hours, sometimes instructing his secretary to tell Moses he had no time to see him.

Moses would yell and try to intimidate FDR. Though FDR was not a big man himself, he was much smarter than Moses. FDR would run rings around Moses leaving him spinning and confused. Moreover, FDR seemed to take a special delight in provoking Moses. Moses would swear at FDR and storm out of the office like a spoiled brat.

FDR was well aware of Moses’ power. There was one thing that the law did allow. It allowed the Governor, the sole power to hire and fire the Commissioner. However, since FDR entered office on the coattails of the very popular and successful fellow Democrat, he knew better than to fire Moses. Moses was Smith’s pet. If he touched Moses, then he touched Smith. FDR could not politically afford to fall out of favour with Smith or Tammany Hall in New York City. After all, FDR would never had been elected Governor without New York City.

FDR wanted to build more State Parks in his home region in the Mid- Hudson Valley. He also wanted more highways to be built linking that region with the city. FDR came up with his own proposals without Moses and the Long Island Beach and Park Commission. There was going to be a clash and it came.

When Moses got wind of FDR’s park plans, he reminded the Governor that as Commissioner of Long Island Beach and Parks and that the plans should come under his jurisdiction. FDR reminded Moses that as Governor of the State, he could do whatever he damned pleased. If he wanted to build a park without Moses or the Long Island Beach and Park Commission, that was his prerogative. Relations between the two men deteriorated.

FDR announced his own proposals for his Mid-Hudson Parks. His plan would be under the auspices of the State Department of Public Works. It was a deliberate slap to Moses. Moses on the other hand seeing the threat to his fiefdom threatened, whined and cried to the press. Moses argued for a new State Park Authority modelled after the Long Island Beach and Park Commission, should have the responsibility for building and regulating all parks. Since Moses had obvious success on Long Island, he should be appointed Commissioner. Moses lobbied everyone he knew to oppose FDR’s plans.

Moses called in a favour from Al Smith. Smith asked FDR why he wouldn’t let Moses take over the State Park Authority to develop the plan. FDR told Smith that he simply didn’t want Moses on the project. Also, he just didn’t like Moses. Moreover, there was no law that stated that all parks built by the State had to fall under the Park Authority. Smith asked FDR to re-consider. Smith and Moses then drafted another bill which closed the loophole. The new bill did two things. First, it stated that all parks built by the State had to be under the State Parks Authority. Second, it gave the State Parks Commissioner more powers over land development.

In the usual manner it was tucked away in a bill and passed. FDR was incensed and was about the fire Moses on the spot. However, FDR had bigger ambitions. Albany was only a temporary layover for his ultimate destination: The White House. He could not afford the time nor political energy to fight the nasty little prick. So, FDR signed the bill into law giving Robert Moses even more power. Moses was now the most powerful person in the State of New York. FDR let Moses have that little victory. However, FDR was not through yet. He was going to have his revenge. If he didn’t have it then, he would have it in the future. There was no doubt about it.


With Al Smith out of politics after his crushing defeat to Herbert Hoover in the 1928 Presidential Elections and having made enemies with FDR, Moses turned his attention to New York City. Smith still had influence within Tammany Hall so Robert Moses thought he would try his luck getting power in the city.

The problem was that the Great Depression struck. The city was devastated. The roaring 20s ended in a bang and crash. The prosperity of the decade and the further development of New York made life much easier for the working class. Moses’ highways, State Parks and Beaches increased the quality of life for all New Yorkers. The booming economy led to a real estate boom. Many of the children of immigrants were now assimilated white American citizens. Many flocked to the spacious pastures of The Bronx and Queens.

Tammany Hall was running on fumes. The boom economy made the workers more prosperous and less reliant on the neighbourhood bosses. The workers still voted Democrat out of habit. The workers enjoyed the boom times just like the Tammany Politicians did. The crash changed it all. Destitute workers resented the greed and criminal activities of Tammany. Tammany did not have enough money or jobs to bail people out of economic misery. Its days were numbered.

Moreover, good government reformers driven by the spirit of Puritanism which had infected the US like the emotional plague after the First World War finally gained strength in New York. The same spirit which led those to Prohibition of alcohol led them to fight against corruption in New York.

The Feds were cracking down on Tammany politicians known for running speak easies and bootlegging. Once again, during the boom times the majority of New Yorkers didn’t care but the Depression changed things quickly.

Fiorello LaGuardia ran as an anti-Tammany left wing reformist for Mayor of New York in 1933 and won. Robert Moses quickly latched on to LaGuardia. In typical fashion Moses convinced LaGuardia that the key to working class happiness in the city was to build recreational facilities. LaGuardia set up the Parks Department and appointed Moses Parks Commissioner.

Moses set out to renovate Central Park . He installed lights in the park. He built Tavern on the Green. He built the Delacorte Theatre where to this day free Shakespeare plays are staged. Moses also built the Wollman Ice Skating Rink. He built the swimming pools in the park.

Outside of Central Park Moses built all the playgrounds in the city. Before Moses, the children of New York had no option but to play in the streets. In addition to playgrounds, Moses built all the basketball and handball courts as well as baseball diamonds. Moses built dozens of swimming pools in each neighbourhood of the city. This was to accommodate the poor people who could not afford to go out to Jones Beach and the other beaches Moses had built on Long Island.

Moses built additional beaches within the city. He built Orchard Beach in The Bronx , which to this day remains the primary beach for the city’s Puerto Rican population. He also built Jacob Riis Park and Beach out in Rockaway.

Moses built additional parks throughout the city. He built the city’s largest park, Van Cortlandt up in The Bronx. He also built Bronx Park which houses The Bronx Zoo. The Bronx Zoo remains one of the best zoological gardens in the world today. His greatest park was Flushing Meadows Park in Queens. The land was marshland and ashes until he transformed it into one of the most interesting parks in the world. Flushing Meadows Park is the home of the U.S. Tennis Center, where the U.S. Open is held. Finally, Moses built Riverside Park on the western shore of Manhattan.

With the success of public parks and swimming facilities, Moses’ success was perceived to be that of LaGuardia’s. After all, LaGuardia was the Mayor and he had appointed Moses as Parks Commissioner. To this day, LaGuardia is considered to be the best mayor New York ever had. Indeed, Rudy Giuliani tried to model himself after LaGuardia. (It is beyond the scope of his essay to compare and contrast LaGuardia and Giuliani. It is only to be said that LaGuardia actually did more to benefit the poor and working classes of the city while Giuliani drove them out. Enough said.)

Robert Moses convinced LaGuardia that what the city needed most was a super bridge to link three boroughs. Once again Moses drafted a law which created the Triborough Bridge Authority. This was the first municipal Authority in the United States. We see that once again, Moses used the political ignorance of American politicians to obtain massive power. In theory, the Triborough Bridge Authority was a City agency. The reality was that Moses had created another parallel state which would have more power than the City itself.

The Triborough Bride remains one of the architectural wonders of the world. It is a Y shaped elevated highway consisting of 4 bridges linking 4 islands of New York to the mainland. Robert A. Caro derisively calls it the “world’s largest traffic machine.” That might be so, but it modernised the city and unified it. The Queens-Wards Island portion of the Triborough Bridge over Hell Gate remains one of the nicest promenades of the city which most tourists and natives are unaware of. It’s true that the Triborough Bridge during Rush Hour is a massive traffic jam. On the other hand, it is also a pedestrian bridge. One of the healthiest activities that a person in New York can do is walk or jog along the Triborough Bride between Harlem and Astoria with one of the greatest views one can see in the world.

The Triborough Bride Authority had its own toll booths and could charge as much as it wanted without regulation from the City and State of New York. It was from the tolls collected that Moses was able to build a financial empire which gave him power over the entire City and State governments. Moses became the de-factor power and money broker in the city and state. He not only lent oney to the City and State but he also lent money to the banks and ruling class elite in the city. The result was that Moses set up a quiet economic and political revolution.

Moses was the most successful Anarchist revolutionary. He saw no need to smash the State by force. He was a right wing Anarchist. He smashed the power of the State economically. He created an Authority which superseded the State. He not only bled the State dry but he made the State powerless. On the other hand, as a right wing Anarchist, he smashed the power of the city’s bourgeoisie. They lost all political and economic power over the City as they had over the State. Moses became the most powerful man in the City and State of New York. The billions of dollars he acquired over decades with unregulated tolls made him the biggest money lender in the State. The banks and rich became dependent upon Moses. As the old cliché goes, “He who pays the fiddler calls the tune.”

Moses was well aware of the corruption of the politicians and the greed of the bourgeoisie. With the capital and cash he accumulated with his Bridge and later Tunnel Authority, along with his genius for bill drafting, Moses seized power away from the State and the Bourgeoisie.

Moses was a man who detested everyone. He hated Black, white, poor and rich. When the city bourgeoisie tried to stop Moses, he smashed them. When Wall Street tried to stop Moses, he nearly destroyed it. New York capitalism was nearly destroyed by Robert Moses. Had Moses had his way with the Brooklyn Battery Bridge, New York would not be the global financial centre that it is today. The World Trade Center would have never been erected. There was only thing which saved the New York capitalist class from destruction by Robert Moses: President Roosevelt.


There have been lots of political feuds throughout history. The modern era has had more than it’s share of them. However, as the principles of The Enlightenment and Humanism took root and Liberal Democracy was ascending, the feuds became less violent. They did not involve murder and death. However, the level of intrigue had not diminished.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt handled his political enemies effortlessly. Most of his enemies self destructed and he was able to outmanoeuvre them quite easily. Robert Moses befriended his enemies in order to gain their confidence before he turned on them. Roosevelt was a Liberal Democrat in the essence of the term. Moses was something else. There had never been and has yet to be anyone in the shape of Robert Moses. He was so devious and so slick that he would’ve made Machiavelli gasp. He was not in the spirit of his times. He was not a totalitarian. That was not his interest. He wasn’t a monarchist. Titles were simply licenses to power. Moses defies any Marxist classification. Moses was not a capitalist. Profit was not his motive. He could have become the world’s richest man. Instead he had a total combined income of about $20-25,000 in today’s value. Robert Moses did not represent any class interest. Moses comes closest to Anarchism. Naturally, many Anarchists will object but any critical observer of Anarchists will clearly see political traits of Robert Moses. This is a debatable point and digression.

Robert Moses ran for Governor of New York State as a Republican in 1934 and caused the State and City Republicans the biggest losses they had suffered until the 1980s. His personality was too nasty even for New Yorker’s tastes. He ranted and shouted. Unlike Hitler and Mussolini, he lacked rhetorical and oratorical skills. He pounded his fists when he talked. He ranted about Democrats in the same manner that Anarchists today rant about the State. What do most people do when they hear Anarchists rant? They get turned off. Moses had an abrasive voice, which in the age of radio, did not help him. He lost to Herbert Lehman in the largest Republican loss in New York State since the 1860s.

FDR being a shrewd politician decided it was time to settle accounts with Moses. As typical with Moses, the Triborough Bridge cost ten times the projections that Moses always insisted. The city did not have the funds to complete the construction of the bridge. LaGuardia applied to the Federal government and the Works Progress Administration for additional funds.

FDR told his Cabinet Secretary of the Interior that WPA funding would be conditional if Robert Moses was taken off of the Triborough Bridge Authority and if he was also fired as New York Parks Commissioner. The Secretary passed this on to LaGuardia who readily agreed.

LaGuardia hated Robert Moses. Both men were nasty. LaGuardia was a petty tyrant. However Moses dominated La Guardia. After all, the primary reason why LaGuardia was popular was due to the projects of Moses. Hence LaGuardia thought it was a good opportunity to get rid of Moses so to have all the power himself.

When Robert Moses discovered that FDR was out to smash him, he fell deadly ill. Moses was a very lucky man. LaGuardia was too clumsy and FDR was exposed. When the media heard that LaGuardia was about to fire the popular Parks Commissioner, LaGuardia acted like the ex- Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin . First he refused comment. Then he denied that he had any intentions to fire Moses. Next he said that he had thought about doing so. He cracked under pressure and blamed the WPA Secretary.

This became a national news story. The story was framed of an aggressive Federal government interfering with the affairs of a city. The WPA Secretary didn’t deny that he had stated that funding for the Triborough Bridge was conditional upon the resignation of Moses. The national press had a field day. The Secretary of course could not state that it was the President’s initiative.

The WPA was denounced in the media as Fascist. It smacked of Bolshevism. A Federal Bureaucracy was dictating who could be officials in New York City. Moses had cultivated relationship with the publishers of the New York Times. The New York Times was the personal propaganda organ for Robert Moses. Moses sent out a communiqué from the Triborough Bridge authority which stated that FDR was the instigator. FDR was on a personal crusade simply because he did not like Moses. It was the truth.

At this time, the City Bourgeoisie were supporters of Moses. Moses had taken them into his confidence only to turn on them later. The New York ruling class reminded FDR that he was the President of a Democracy. FDR could not use his office to carry out petty and personal political revenge. Robert Moses, the city’s bourgeoisie said, was the best thing that ever came along in New York. The decisive battle was when Moses had his back in the corner. FDR was about to crush him. In desperation Moses called in a favour from Al Smith. Al Smith publicly stated that he would be shocked that the President of the United States would try to remove a competent municipal administrator for personal or political motives. FDR surrendered. Moses kept his power and the PWA provided money for the Triborough Bridge. Robert Moses won round 2.

The Battle of the Brooklyn-Battery Bridge: FDR Versus Moses Round 3

It never fails to amaze me how stupid people are politically. All one has to do is observe each election in the Western World to see how deep the stupidity is. Time and time again, people support political figures that are not in their interests at all. It is obvious but apparently not to the majority of people. Moses was keenly aware of the public’s stupidity. In many ways, I can understand his contempt for the masses. I believe it was Henry David Thoreau who stated “The Masses are the asses.” If the politicians were stupid enough to give him absolute power without reading the details, why should he respect them? If the ruling class propped him up because they saw him as a class ally when it should have been otherwise obvious, why should he care about them? 5 years after being the life savers of Robert Moses, he made his move to destroy them.

It was time for Moses to have a sequel to the Triborough Bridge. He had already bullied LaGuardia into handing over the proposed Queens-Midtown Tunnel to the Triborough Bride Authority. That was the beginning of its permanent name: The Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. However, Moses did not like to build many things underground. He wanted to project his grand ego onto the city landscape. For him a tunnel was simply a large tiled bathroom.

Moses decided to build the Brooklyn-Battery Bridge which would have linked South Brooklyn with the southern tip of Manhattan. However, under his proposal, Battery Park would be destroyed. It was to be the longest and tallest suspension bridge in the world. It would have cut the edifice of the financial district. The image below shows what the bridge would have looked liked had it had been built.

The Ruling Class panicked. Battery Park was home to the original New York Aquarium. It was built within and around Castle Clinton, the old military fort, which still stands today and is the reason why the area is named Battery. It was the most popular attraction for native New Yorkers. The ruling class tried to stop Moses. He spit on them.

Wall Street was deeply alarmed. The bankers saw the threat to the property values in the financial district. The arm of the bridge would have cut right across South Ferry, Water and South Streets. The property assessors estimated that the property values would decline so far that eventually there would be nothing left of value. That meant the headquarters of Chase Manhattan and JP Morgan Banks as well as the New York Stock Exchange would see the value of their property bottom out. The Brooklyn Battery Bridge spelt the death of Wall Street.

Moses had the city under absolute control. During an extraordinary session of the municipal government, the entire Ruling Class; liberal, democrat, republican and conservative packed the chamber and demanded that the Board of Estimate not approve the Brooklyn Battery Bridge. The best lawyers of the city denounced the plans. For two hours, the Ruling Class attacked, charged and denounced Moses with arguments, statistics, and rhetoric in excel of anything ever seen before or since.

In reply, Moses brought the entire political, social, and economic Ruling Class of the city down to the dirt. He made vicious, nasty, cutting and devastating insults. He swore with the greatest of venom directly into their faces. He verbally assassinated the oldest member of the city’s ruling class. “He’s a shrivelled up prune!” Never before had the ruling elites of New York been spit upon, mocked and dismissed as Robert Moses had done.

The Board of Estimate passed the Brooklyn Battery Bridge unanimously in front of an astonished and castrated ruling class audience. It was clear who The Boss of New York was. However, the Ruling Class elites who had little political sense appealed to their great enemy, FDR for help.

A brief recap. In the early 1930s, Robert Moses was the great icon of Ruling Class Liberals and Reformers. When he was attacked with justification by FDR, they rushed to his defence against the Bolshevik President. Now that Moses had turned on them and threatened to kill them economically, they crawled on their hands and knees begging to FDR.

There was only one last hurdle for the Brooklyn Battery Bridge to pass. It had to get permission from the Navy Department. Usually the Navy wanted to be sure that the Bridge gave enough clearance room for its larger and taller ships. The bridge was certain to pass the clearance room. However, the Navy was part of the War Department. The President of the U.S. is the Commander-In-Chief of all armed forces.

The Ruling Class, now aware of their earlier political stupidity, realised it was time to bring Moses’ greatest enemy back on side. They appealed to Eleanor Roosevelt , who in her weekly nationally syndicated column asked Mr. Moses to re-consider his plans and listen to the concerns by people of the city.

FDR had Moses’ number and knew it quite well. He ordered a special personal Executive review of the plans. The bridge was going to get WPA funding. FDR failed with that strategy against Moses before. He decided to delay the Navy from making a decision. Moses fumed at the delays by the Navy. He personally phoned the Navy and had all of his close associates browbeat and harass the Navy with calls and telegrams. Moses stomped around Randall’s Island. The same Secretary of the Interior who had been used as FDR’s pawn against Moses was also keen to get the project approved one way or the other. He liked Moses personally and thought the bridge was a good idea. He pushed FDR until the latter simply stated that he just didn’t like it. When The Commander-In-Chief doesn’t like an idea it means that the Navy cannot approve it. The Navy rejected the Brooklyn-Battery Bridge for “national security” reasons. The old con line which still resonates today. It was a joke back in 1940 as it is today. Moses knew it. FDR won. Moses was forced to build the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel. Wall Street was saved from economic disaster. Battery Park remained.

Still, Moses had to remind the Ruling Class who was in charge of the city. He made up a false reason to demolish the Aquarium in Battery Park. Though the Ruling Class were saved economically they had lost all political influence. The great symbol of Bourgeois New York City was demolished. The demolition of the old New York Aquarium destroyed the ruling class emotionally. Tears of anguish ran down Wall Street and Park Avenue.

Racism USA


It was certainly true that Robert Moses despised Black and Puerto Rican people personally. Robert Moses did not want Black people going to Jones Beach in the 1920s. The Parkway police harassed Black drivers. When Blacks arrived at Jones Beach, they were directed to the far end of the Beach. They were kept far apart from white swimmers. The areas which Blacks were allotted did not have lockers and showers as the main part of the beach. The white beach patrollers would make sure that Blacks did not get close to the white areas. The same policy followed for the municipal pools which were under the control of the Parks Department. Blacks were not allowed to go to the pools in white neighbourhoods.

That was how things were in the US during the 1920s and 30s. The North has always boasted hypocritically that it didn’t have segregation as The South. America was and remains a segregated country. There are pockets of integration across the country but the US is by and large segregated. When FDR as Governor of New York was told about Moses’ racial policy at Jones Beach, didn’t respond or react. Fiorello LaGuardia was also notorious for his anti-Black racism. However LaGuardia found out by the end of the 1930’s that Harlem was a political force in the city.

The greatest paradox about Robert Moses was that he did more for the Black and Puerto Rican population of New York than any other politician has before or since. It was ironically his disdain of Black people which enabled them to become an organised and large political force in the city. It was the physical space which Moses had created for them formed the social and political forces which would one day result in the election of the city’s first Black Mayor.

As the city’s Blacks were gaining political power and were moving economically upward, many moved out of the over-crowded housing of Harlem and out into Brooklyn. There was large influx of Black migrants from the South who were desperately poor and needed housing. The State Constitution over which Al Smith presided added a clause compelling New York State to provide benefits and social assistance to the needy and poor. LaGuardia passed a municipal law to the same effect.

Between the end of the First World War until the end of the Second World War, hundreds of thousands of Blacks fled the South in terror and desperation. They migrated to the cities and towns in the Northern States. New York and Chicago were the destinations of the vast majority of these migrants. Both cities found themselves with a large Black population. New York became the largest Black city in the US. However Chicago had an elected dictatorship under Richard Daley while New York had the apolitical legislated dictatorship of Robert Moses. The results could not have been any more different.

When LaGuardia created the first Public Housing Projects of the city, he tried to find ways to build large numbers of housing for a couple of million low income residents of the city. Once again Moses drafted the legislation of the city’s second public authority. The New York City Housing Authority was created. Though Moses did not have seemingly any direct control, as City Planner (another authority that Moses shook LaGuardia down for), he could appoint the majority of members to the Housing Authority Board.

Moses has been castigated for the design of some of the New York City Housing Projects. However, the New York City Housing Authority accomodates more low-income people than any other city in the United States. Over 1 million people live in public housing in New York. That is quite an accomplishment. It is hardly enough but it is nevertheless impressive. The New York City Housing Authority has been the top ranked by the Federal Department of Housing and Urban Development for decades.

With the exception of Vienna , Amsterdam and possibly some of the Scandinavian cities, Public Housing is generally inferior housing. They are meant to not to look aesthetically pleasing. They are meant for poor people. Most of the time, they are built far away from the rest of the central city. Generally, the building material is inferior. Oftentimes, there are mechanical failures. They are usually desolate zones of desperation and utter alienation.

In this respect, Moses housing projects have remained one of the most stable and successful public housing examples in the Western World. Moses never built anything shoddy or substandard. His ego wouldn’t allow for it. His job was to build housing for poor people. Moses wasn’t cheap. All of his projects cost up to hundreds of millions of dollars. Moses spent more money building housing projects in New York than anything other municipal authority in the United States. Chicago, by contrast, built its projects in the cheapest way possible.

Since the Housing Authority were flush with cash from the tolls collected from Moses’ bridges and tunnels, the result was many clusters of projects built all over the city with good materials. There was crime in many projects but not really any more than in the rest of the city. Heat and electricity were included in the rent. If neither heat nor hot water worked, the Housing Authority corrected it quickly. If vandals removed the lights from the elevators, the Authority always replaced them. With money coming from the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, cash was not a problem.

The locations of many of the housing projects are some of the best spots in the city. From 14 Street to the Brooklyn Bridge, the entire East Side waterfront is lined with projects that Moses built.

Most astonishing are the miles of housing projects which line the beaches of The Rockaways. Tens of thousands of poor people in New York with a beach front onto the Atlantic Ocean.

It would not be far-fetched if the reasoning behind building the projects along the Lower East Side banks of the East River was because the land value at the time was considered cheap. The Rockaways are the most remote part of New York City. On the weekend, it can take no less than 2 hours to reach Far Rockaway from Midtown Manhattan by subway. Moses built housing projects on a remote beach far away from everything. His racist motivation might have been to place tens of thousands of Blacks in exile away from civilisation out in Rockaway.

Nevertheless, there still remains a contradiction. Moses was an excellent swimmer. Jones Beach and the building of beaches was his primary passion. He loved beaches. He hated Black people. So why would he build housing on beaches for Black people? The same question runs with Orchard Beach. He built Orchard Beach on the northeast coast of The Bronx where Pelham Bay coincides with Long Island Sound. Orchard Beach became the primary beach of choice for the city’s Puerto Rican population. He did not intend for that but that was the result.

Robert Moses built most of the largest housing projects in Brooklyn . In a wide swath across Brooklyn are clusters of housing projects. However, there are surrounding streets with market housing. The majority of New York’s Blacks live in this “Black Belt”. It was here that Blacks were able to organise and rise politically not only within Brooklyn but along with Harlem, citywide.

These were probably not related to Moses’ motivation for building them. After all, even if Blacks were to one day able to obtain political power, if he were still in charge nothing would have changed regarding Moses’ power. In the event that it might and eventually did occur, then he would e dead. Either way, Moses had no interest pro or con against the political rights and organisation of Black people in the city.

I will compare Robert Moses with Richard Daley and the respective racisms. Daly did not only hate Black people but he intentionally kept them oppressed. When Daley built Chicago’s housing projects he intentionally designed them to be high-rise dog houses . For Daley, the projects were to be nothing more than caged zoos for the Black poor to live and suffer in. The Chicago Housing Authority was run by known crooks tied to Daley’s Democrat Party Machine in the city. The Chicago Housing Authority had no interest at all in public housing. The residents were simply animals to ignore and abuse. If a housing project’s boiler broke down, the attitude from the CHA was “too bad, so sad.” The housing projects of Chicago were purposely designed for misery and suffering.

Moses did not want to oppress Black people. He had no intention or desire to see Black people suffer and be miserable. Though he considered them to be apes, he did not build the projects to be the Primate’s House at The Bronx Zoo. He thought Blacks were inferior but did not build them inferior housing.

The Housing Authority put many Black people who needed emergency housing in empty apartments with market rent buildings all over the city. Whites were stunned to find Black people suddenly around them. Many of the Blacks were recent migrants from the south who were really poor. Robert Moses initiated a plan of forced integration throughout the city. This was part of one of the causes of the so-called “white flight” to the suburbs in the early 1960s.

Not all projects are equal. Some are really nice. Others are really bad. Most of them do not look very nice. However, they lack the squalor that you find in many Social Housing in North America and large parts of Western Europe. They are light years ahead of the Communist housing blocks found in Eastern Europe.

In the early 1990s, the Federal government had to take over the Chicago Housing Authority because of mismanagement. The Feds uncovered a stench of sordidness. Robert Moses’ NYCHA is the best managed and honest public housing agency in the United States.

Unlike Chicago, France and the UK, the housing projects of New York are places of relative social peace and calm. There have not been many reported serious incidents of social unrest in the New York projects. The NYCHA does not keep the projects in squalor. Most projects were built in close proximity to the subway. The residents of the projects were allowed free mobility. Even the projects built on Rockaway Beach are served by frequent subway service to and from the rest of the city.

In the enormously complex mind of Robert Moses, his individual racism was not manifested in the manner in which he built and established public housing for Black people. In the 1950s, the courts ruled that segregation in New York public housing was illegal. So a handful of projects were filled with Blacks, Irish, Jews and Puerto Ricans living together. However, that did not last very long as many of the Irish moved to the suburbs. However, the New York Housing Authority remains the only agency left in the US where hundreds of thousands of poor people are decently and adequately housed at affordable rent.


The New York Times was for decades the PR firm for Robert Moses. However, the popular anger in the city was starting to build. The projects for his many highways destroyed and uprooted many neighbourhoods. The Bronx was destroyed by him. Moses was called “The Hitler of New York.” Moses’ political hero was actually Abraham Lincoln . That partly helps to explain his policy towards Blacks. Lincoln hated Blacks and did not believe them to be equal to whites yet he was forced to emancipate the slaves.

Moses faced two more political challenges. The first was against a young Liberal Republican Mayor by the name of John Lindsay . Lindsay ran against the entrenched Democrat Political Machine. After LaGuardia lost the mayoralty in New York in 1945, the Democrats came back. Tammany had been replaced with former American Communist Party members and graduates now accustomed to the political reality of Moses’ New York. Lindsay was elected in 1965.

He tried to bring Moses in line but the old lion devoured him. In one of the most incredible scenes ever played out in the New York Statehouse, Moses led Lindsay into a trap. Lindsay went to Albany thinking that he would find allies on the State level against Moses. However, Moses had controlled Albany for 40 years since Al Lewis. In his political coup-de-grace, Moses lured Lindsay to a special joint session of the State Assembly, Senate and Governor to hear Lindsay complain about Moses. It was one of the cruellest and most elaborate practical joke ever played out in and Democracy in the United States. Lindsay was laughed out of the Statehouse by the entire State Political establishment. Moses made a monkey out of Lindsay. The State political leaders set Lindsay up just to laugh and mock him publicly and politically. Lindsay was destroyed politically. Moses effortlessly isolated and de-clawed the Mayor of New York City. The Mayor of the World’s largest city at that time was wrecked because of one person. Robert Moses held more power over a Liberal Democratic State than anyone else in history.

Yet Moses had no political mass formation in the form of a party. He simply had Authority. He was politically and economically autonomous. The Parks, Beach and Bridge and Tunnel Authorities were his sole political and economic base. He was not even a profiteer. He had a modest salary of only $10,000 a year. He was not personally a rich man nor did he desire to accumulate personal wealth. Here comes another paradox.

Moses had acquired free capital from the State and City of New York. He used the tolls of his bridges, tunnels and parkways to accumulate close if not more than one billion dollars over 34 years. The capital that the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority accumulated was used to influence and obtain power. Moses wanted power for power’s sake. He did not have economic motivations. He cannot be called a capitalist by any stretch of the imagination. Rather he manipulated capitalism and politics to obtain absolute power. He could have become the world’s richest man. Instead he chose to be the most powerful man in the most powerful city and State in the US.

Nor was Moses in it for political power. He had no need to run as a politician. He learnt to legally manipulate the legislation that gave him more power than the State. Robert Moses smashed the power of municipal and state government.

The 1964-65 World’s Fair was his Waterloo. At the time, it was regarded as a fiasco but it remains today fondly remembered by New Yorkers who attended it. The New York Times turned against him. Lindsay fired him from all city commissionerships. Moses didn’t care. He still had his Bridge Authority. He built 3 more suspension bridges. Two of them linked Long Island with the mainland. The third bridge linked remote Staten Island to Brooklyn. This bridge, the Verranzano-Narrows reigned as the longest suspension bridge in the world for more than years and remains the longest suspension bridge in the United States.

The Rockefeller’s entered into politics. Nelson Rockefeller , a son of John D. was elected Governor of New York. Rockefeller was the beginning of the upstate Ruling Class to re-assert political power back in New York State. Rockefeller liked Moses but felt that it was time for Moses to retire. Moses refused. Rockefeller on many occasions asked Moses to retire. Moses said no. Rockefeller than plotted a plan.

Rockefeller wanted to invest more in public transit. He wanted all highways and public transit to be directly regulated by the State. Rockefeller announced plans to create a Metropolitan Transportation Authority which would be a State Authority in charge of regulating public transit in New York City and surrounding suburbs within the State.

Moses saw the warning sign. Moses had bleed public transit in the city dry with the costs of his highways and bridges. He wanted everyone to drive cars so he could keep his power. State investment in public transit was against Moses’ philosophy. Moses asked Rockefeller whether or not the MTA was a plot to remove him. Rockefeller at first reassured him.

Moses realising that the end was about to come jumped the gun. He went to the media and attacked Rockefeller. He then accused Rockefeller of having a conflict of interest because his brother David was the head of the family owned Chase Manhattan Bank. That was a fatal provocation.

Nelson Rockefeller was a man of great ambition. He was keen to become President. He was going to have to build a political legacy to become a contender for President. He was not a man to cross politically. Though he and his brother had inherited their grandfather’s wealth, who obtained that illegally, the children acted within the law. Rockefeller could’ve tolerated a direct personal attack. He wouldn’t tolerate having his brother brought down to the dirt with implications of criminality.

The Governor had made up his mind. Moses had to go. He was still willing to help Moses save face. The MTA would take over the Triborough Bride and Tunnel Authority. Moses would still be able to have his office on Randall’s Island but he would have no decision making power. Moses refused and threatened to resign. Rockefeller fired him. All his power was snatched away. Liberal Democracy had finally regained legitimacy on the State level. The Governor was once again the most powerful figure politically in the State. Supreme power no longer rested with an un-elected and unaccountable Commissioner of Parks, Beaches and Bridges.


The fall of Robert Moses created a power vacuum in New York City. Suddenly the most powerful figure, The Boss was gone. Mayor Lindsay was rendered impotent by Moses’ last power play. The humiliation of Lindsay had knock on effects throughout the city. The Mayor was seen as a joker. Authority became a joke. New York entered a period of 15 years of anarchy.

The development which has baffled criminologists and sociologists alike was the absolute breakdown of authority in New York between 1967 and 1982. The city government and its principal agency of social control, the police force, had lost control over the city. The people of New York no longer obeyed the law or authority. The government and the police were rendered impotent in the face of such defiance.

Not long after the fall of Robert Moses, New York was hit by its first power failure. The 1968 Blackout was quite symbolic of the Moses’ power being suddenly clipped. The same year, Black parents, emboldened in defiance by the Teacher’s Strike, organised student strikes to demand community control of the schools. Parents of Black pupils withdrew their children and kept them home. Blacks occupied school buildings and the Board of Education Headquarters to demand community control over the schools. The Board of Education ceded to the demands and the birth of Community School Boards in New York came about. This was followed up with the demands to end segregation in the City University of New York. City College, Hunter College and Queens College within CUNY were shut off to Black students. Radical direct action ended racial segregation within the City University system. Also in 1968, New York City public schools were hit by a crippling strike by the teachers. It was the largest strike ever staged by teachers in the United States. Close to half the academic year was lost due to the strike. The United Federation of Teachers became a political and potent force in the city and remains so today. Columbia University was rocked by violent student protests. The following year 1969 came the Stonewall Uprising and the beginning of the Gay and Lesbian political movement. The economic collapse of Industrial Capitalism in 1973 was one of the factors that led to a decade long depression in New York. The subway started to disintegrate. Public transit bus service deteriorated. A cultural response to the social and economic disaster was to express resistance to the system which produced the crisis. The appearance and subsequent explosion of Graffiti was nothing other than young people saying “Fuck You!” to authority. With rising and mass unemployment and little economic prospects, the crime rate increased dramatically in New York. Crime was and remains caused by economic deprivation. People were so poor that some resorted to stealing light bulbs from elevators and subway stations. John Lindsay’s political career ended in 1973 when Abraham Beame was elected Mayor. Beame took office and saw that the city had no money left. The Board of Estimate had no choice but to cut back as much as possible. Sanitation took the biggest cut. The city could no longer afford to keep the streets clean. Rubbish removal was reduced to once a week in affluent areas and bi-weekly in most other areas. The city lacked money to finance the subways and buses.

Beame went to Albany to beg for money but the State was nearly as strapped as the city. Moreover, the Upstate Republicans who controlled the State government wanted to see New York City die anyway.

By 1975, the Nixon fiasco had just passed. Gerald Ford was President and Nelson Rockefeller was Vice President. Since Rockefeller was appointed Ford’s VP directly from the Governor’s seat, Beame went to Washington, D.C. to lobby Rockefeller. Rockefeller promised to send emergency funding to the city. These were the good old days when the Vice President had little power, a decade before the George H. Bush Vice Presidency and 3 decades before Dick Cheney’s. Back in the 1970’s, the President was still the one in charge of the White House. Ford refused to sign any executive order to bail out New York City. The results of that decision created what remains the most famous headline from the tabloid New York Daily News: “Ford To City: Drop Dead”. Both the Federal and State governments had decided to let New York City die economically.

There was no authority what so ever vis-à-vis New York City. The City government was bankrupt. The police force had no money and corruption was so deep, that in certain parts of the city, entire police precincts were places where drugs were dealt and bought. The police officers themselves were breaking the very laws they were paid to uphold and protect. There was no State authority because the State Government wanted nothing to do with the city. It showed no interest in running or managing New York City. There wasn’t any Federal authority because the Federal government pursued a policy to let the largest city in the country to collapse. The President, Governor and leaders of the State Legislature were all Republicans.

1976 was the most critical year of the city. The financial Bond rating companies were about to downgrade the city’s bonds to 0 value. That meant that New York City would not have been able to borrow money. Donald Trump entered the scene and bailed out the city. For the first time since the end of the First World War, the bourgeoisie was back in power. Since Donald Trump re-financed the city out of his own pockets, he had in effect bought it. Donald Trump replaced Robert Moses as The Boss of New York. On the Federal level, Rockefeller was furious with Ford for leaving New York City to die. Ford then made the fatal mistake of dropping Rockefeller from the ticket in the 1976 election. Rockefeller saw his ambitions to become President sunk and his political career unceremoniously destroyed. He vowed revenge against Ford. Rockefeller twisted the arms of every Republican county boss in New York State. In one of the closest Presidential elections, Jimmy Carter narrowly beat Ford. Carter won New York State, still the largest at the time, and Ford went into history as the only un-elected President of the United States. (George W. Bush was the second un-elected President legally speaking but not officially.)

1977 was an election year for Mayor of New York. There was no way that Beame would run again. He was considered to be the worst mayor the city ever had. The entire Democrat Party establishment ran for Mayor. The Democrat bosses of all the boroughs ran. By the 1950s, Harlem had taken control of Manhattan politically. Blacks were the most powerful political group in Manhattan. Percy Sutton, the Black Manhattan Borough President was one of the contenders. The two other main contenders were Mario Cuomo and a Greenwich Village Congressman named Ed Koch. 7 people ran for Mayor of New York in 1977. Koch came out on top. 9 years after the fall of Robert Moses, the city had fallen into such disarray and the political and power vacuum so acute that 7 people, all from the same party competed for the top spot of political power in the city.

There was another Blackout in 1977 . A psycho serial killer who called himself the Son of Sam struck terror in the city. The Bronx went up in flames.

Crooked landlords paid arsonists to burn down their buildings in The Bronx so that they could collect insurance money. No one obeyed the law. From the top to the bottom of New York society, authority was non-existent.

Ed Koch spent his first term as Mayor like most people in New York in the late 70s did. He partied, danced, had sex and took drugs. It was an open secret that Koch was gay. He was never open about it politically but everyone knew. Particularly with those who were in the Disco scene. Koch was famous for having sex with as many men as possible. Gay men in the Disco scene liked to boast that they had slept with the Mayor. Mayor Koch and the Disco scene was a direct political and cultural result of the Stonewall Uprising.

Koch partied through his first mandate and easily won re-election in 1981. Between 1977 and 1981, New York had reached its bottom. The murder rate was the highest in the western world. Muggings, slashing, robberies had become epidemic. Back in 1973, Rockefeller emptied the State Mental Wards. Beame followed suit in 1974. Thousands of psychopaths, homicidal and criminally insane, descended onto the streets of New York. Robert Moses died in 1981 at the top of the city’s anarchistic period.

Despite the epitome of anarchy, New York underwent its greatest cultural and artistic revolution since the Harlem Renaissance and Tin Pan Alley of the 1920s. Punk, New Wave and Hip Hop were the cultural results of the city’s anarchy. Despite the fear and terror of criminality, the young people of city danced, djayed, rapped, made music and created graffiti art.

Koch was not serious about being Mayor. He became Mayor for two reasons: The first was that as Hizzoner, he would be able to get into the best clubs and Discos for free as well as to get laid anytime he wanted. The second reason was that City Hall was only a stepping stone for the State House. In 1982, he ran for Governor. In the Democratic Primary, he faced off again with his old nemesis, Mario Cuomo . Cuomo went on the win and would remain Governor for 12 years. Cuomo and Koch made a pact. Cuomo would never again run for Mayor and Koch would never again run for Governor.

It was at the end of 1982 that Koch got serious about running the city of New York. It was Koch, who by 1983 reasserted authority of the city. His first crackdown was against Graffiti. The Transit Police were directed to take excessive measures against Graffiti artists. Koch began to demonise and portray Graffiti artists as the most dangerous criminal villains. The result of this crackdown was the first death of a Graffiti artist, Michael Stewart , who was hog tied and beaten to death by the Transit Police. By the beginning of 1989, the subways were clean of graffiti.

It was during Koch’s second term that the Ruling Class managed to regain complete control over the city. Donald Trump had all but in name owned the Title and Deed of New York City. The banks, real estate and insurance industries networked together. With Robert Moses dead and out of power, the New York capitalist class was able to dominate and call the shots once again. The bankers and real estate establishment began plans to remove the city’s poor, Black and Latino population. Luxury condos were built. Landlords who owned rent-controlled buildings would keep apartments vacant until most of the units in the buildings were empty. Then the landlords converted them into Condos. The homeless crisis in New York was artificially created. There was always more than enough apartments to house everyone. However, profit and not affordable housing became the new economic and political law of New York. Real Estate prices increased. Rents became astronomical. No affordable housing was built. More and more homeless started to populate the streets of New York.

Crime started to decrease by 1989 and declined steadily for a decade. Giuliani took the credit for it but the crime rate dropped mostly during the David Dinkins years of 1990-1993. What was remarkable was that despite the heavy economic burdens of the city, the municipal government did not cut welfare or other social services. That began when Dinkins was Mayor, who by the time, had to do whatever Donald Trump and the other bankers told him to do. Of course Giuliani followed and the implementation of the Corporate Feudal State with the economic ethnic cleansing of the poor, Black and Latino people of New York. The rest of the story continues to the present.


Robert Moses built and made New York City. The aesthetic of New York is that of Robert Moses. Moses was one of the greatest, if not the greatest builder in the history of the world. The world class and famous city became so almost exclusively because of Robert Moses. When one flies in or out of the two airports within the city, one is in a Moses structure. When one takes a taxi to or from JFK and LaGuardia Airports, the highways that one drives upon were built by Moses. The United Nations headquarters was built by Robert Moses. When one drives into New York from all directions, 3 of the vehicular tunnels were built by Moses. When one drives through New York City on any Interstate, one is on Moses ground. When one watched the New York Mets play at Shea Stadium (until 2009) or watches the U.S. Open in Flushing Meadows, one sits in a Robert Moses structure. The Central Park Zoo, The Bronx Zoo and the New York Aquarium are all the results of Robert Moses. When one goes to Grant’s Tomb or takes a stroll through Riverside Park, one is on Moses ground. All that remains interesting and good to this day in New York is the result of Robert Moses.

The biggest lie told by the reactionary right and supporters of Giuliani is how New York’s Liberal Social Welfare system left the city bankrupt. The second biggest lie they tell, is that civil rights led to a breakdown in respect for authority. This was a statement that Tony Blair made back in 2004.

Of all the reactionary cheerleaders and supporters of Rudy Giuliani, John Leo is the most honest. Leo is a syndicated right wing columnist. In an article defending Giuliani , Leo detailed the political, social and economic reality of the city before Giuliani, just as I have done. Leo is absolutely correct about New York City. I can respect an honest review. However, he and I disagree about the legacy of Giuliani.

My point is this. It was not Liberal “Socialistic” programs which bankrupt New York City. Nor was it due to the misguided politics of left wing Democrats. No. Robert Moses was single-handedly responsible for it. It was the building of his bridges, highways, tunnels and World’s Fair which bankrupt the city. As we see clearly, Robert Moses was a right wing Republican. He was not some lefty quasi-Socialist. Moses used to scam the city by reassuring nervous Mayors and Comptrollers alike that his projects wouldn’t “cost the city a penny.” He was linguistically correct. His projects didn’t cost New York one penny but rather billions of pennies.

An example was the construction of Riverside Park. Moses would always underestimate the costs. He would browbeat the city to raise million dollar bonds. The money would run out. Riverside Park was only half completed when he would ask the city for more money. When the City Comptroller would refuse, Moses would say fine but he was not going to clear up the construction work. The Comptroller and Mayor were faced with a dilemma. Give Moses more money or let a huge chunk of the city lie torn apart. The politicians always gave in.

With Moses sucking the city’s finances dry, the city could not spend money on keeping the aging subways in repair. Other essential services had to be scaled back. By 1976, 8 years after the fall of Moses, the city went bankrupt. The blame lies squarely at the feet of Robert Moses. It had nothing to do with Socialism or Liberalism.

This logically leads to the issue of social disorder and the practical disappearance of authority. As I have tried to show in this essay, Government authority in New York City and State had vanished by 1940. That was the doing of Robert Moses and the fault of stupid and gullible Republican Party politicians. Robert Moses single-handedly destroyed the authority of two levels of government and that of the entire bourgeois class. The only authority in the city and state of New York was the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority

When Robert Moses was removed by Rockefeller in 1968, the only figure of authority in the city was gone. When the head is cut off, the body dies. The economic collapse of industrial capitalism hit all of the Western Industrial countries and had nothing to do with Robert Moses. However, due to Moses, the economic crisis hit New York especially hard. With the city bankrupt and the loss of jobs severe, crime was bound to increase. Combined with the Republican Rockefeller releasing all the mental inmates, violence also increased. It was two Republican Party politicians who removed Moses. The breakdown of authority in New York City occurred on the watch of a Republican Mayor and Governor. It was not the results of liberals or Democrats.

On to the issues of race and class, Robert Moses inadvertently helped the Blacks of New York politically. Moses did nothing to take away the social and political rights of Blacks. He actually increased the quality of life for Black New Yorkers. Giuliani was the exact opposite. Giuliani ran on a campaign to oppress Blacks. On the first day as Mayor he publicly stated that the poor should move out of the city. Robert Moses benefited the poor and Black people of the city. Giuliani repressed and oppressed them. The vast majority of Robert Moses’ the victims were working class whites of The Bronx and Brooklyn to the white capitalist Robber Barons of Long Island.

In his book, Caro gives a glaring contradiction in his analysis of Robert Moses. On one hand Caro shows Moses’ racism but then later he himself insinuates a racist point. Caro blames Moses for bringing poor Black people in middle class white areas of the city. Caro perpetuates the justification for white flight out of the city. By bringing in poor Black criminals into stable middle class white areas, whites fled, neighbourhoods became slums and the crime rate increased.

Robert Moses did more to integrate New York racially than anybody else in the history of the city. And thank goodness for Moses’ clever law making because the only reason why Black and Latinos will remain in Harlem is because of his housing projects. The only reason why the city’s poor Black and Latino population will not be economically cleansed in the foreseeable feature is due to the housing projects that Moses built. The most important legacy of Robert Moses is that he has ensured that poor, Black and Latino people will have a right to live and stay in New York City. Within 10 years from now all the privately owned apartment buildings in Harlem will be cleansed of Blacks and Puerto Ricans. However, those will remain in the projects. The same is true on the Lower East Side. The only reason why the L.E.S. has not been 100% gentrified to due of the housing projects that Moses built.

Make no mistake about it. The bankers and real estate elites, as you read this, are formulating schemes to either tear down public housing or to convert them to market rate units of wealthy people. For the past 15 years there have been various and serious attempts to do so. However, Moses’ law creating the New York City Housing Authority makes it almost impossible. Giuliani had a scheme that involved first forcing all NYPD officers to live in public housing. Then he planned to offer cheap or free housing to police officers in the projects. All of his plans failed. First, the cops and their families would sooner jump in front of a subway train than to live in the projects. Second, though police officers do not make a large salary, they are hardly low-income. Legally, public housing is for low-income people only. To allow the police and their families into public housing would contravene the law. To change the law would be very complicated and tricky given how Robert Moses had written it. The current Mayor, Michael Bloomberg is probably trying to figure out a way to dismantle public housing. He could try a clever scheme in the same manner as he destroyed the Board of Education. However, that would require action on part of the State government. Given that the Governor is now a Black Democrat from The Bronx and the Speaker of the State Assembly is from the Lower East Side that looks unlikely to occur. The Speaker of the Assembly is Sheldon Silver . Half if not more than half of his constituents live in the public housing projects of the Lower East Side. That would be political suicide. But then of course, everyone has a price to pay for the Billion Dollar Mayor.

There are more than one million public housing residents of New York City. To remove one million people would be too risky in any democracy including a sham one as in the US today. Most people in the projects do not vote. This was most evident in the 1993 Mayoral election which Giuliani won. If all the residents of only two housing projects voted, Giuliani would never have become Mayor of New York. As I stated above, it was the housing projects of Harlem that gave Blacks the political power in New York. If any politician tried to abolish public housing, they would face two serious revolts from the projects. First, they would face electoral revolt and they could possibly face violent revolt. Thanks to Robert Moses, poor Blacks and Latinos have an emergency resource in the ballot and have a physical mass that can be potentially revolutionary.

Although Robert Moses destroyed the most beautiful borough of the city, the long term consequences are positive. The Bronx remains the only part of New York City which hasn’t changed politically or socially. Gentrification is barely making its way into The Bronx. The Bronx will be the last part of New York City to be cleansed of poor, Blacks and Latinos. The Cross Bronx Expressway has reduced property values and kept them at the bottom. Not even the most devious and slick Real Estate crooks can manipulate or change that. The Bronx remains the most left wing part of New York City. It is also a potentially revolutionary part of the city that the Corporate Feudal rulers of the city should tread with extreme caution.

The world’s most popular music today, Hip Hop was a creation of both the IRT subway trains and the housing projects of Robert Moses. In fact, due to the bankruptcy of the city, many of the youth in the projects took up Djaying, break dancing and rapping. Old School Hip Hop and Rap is also the aesthetic of Robert Moses. The Blacks lived in his housing projects. Their social development, language and culture were created in the projects. This is probably one of the biggest indirect cultural legacies of Robert Moses.

New York has many highways, 95% of them built by Robert Moses. However, New York is not Los Angeles, Toronto or Atlanta. With the exception of The Bronx and parts of Queens, highways take up very little of the city’s urban surface. One can walk in Manhattan and never encounter a highway. When most people think of New York, highways are the last thing that comes to mind. New York connotes skyscrapers, bridges and subways. Indeed, when one flies over New York landing into Moses built LaGuardia Airport; one does not see highways all over the landscape. Moses is blamed for turning New York into one giant highway. I do not see it. The highways are there but New York remains a public transit and pedestrian city rather than a motor city.

Finally, New York (Manhattan in particular) has turned into and is turning into an artificial Walt Disney World. The structures and parks of Robert Moses have prevented and will prevent New York from turning into a plastic and fake city. New York is socially and culturally plastic today. Anyone that knows New York for decades will easily see this obvious fact. Though Giuliani and Bloomberg have politically and socially turned New York into Indianapolis and Cincinnati , they will never be able to turn the city physically into a provincial American city. To destroy the real New York would entail destroying the entire city edifice. The World Trade Center was built by the Rockefeller’s after Moses was removed. Had Moses not been thwarted by Franklin Roosevelt to build the Brooklyn-Battery Bridge, the twin towers would never have been built. Or if they had been, their location would have been different.

Robert Moses was a mean, nasty and vicious man. He was a racist and held all people from all races and classes in utter contempt. He subverted democracy yet he made New York into the most liberal and free society the world has ever known. He smashed the Ruling Class yet at the same time he made the material life for poor and working class people the best in North America. He displaced close to a half million people with two of his highways yet he provided one million poor people housing. Most importantly, Moses never built anything for the corporations. All of his developments were for the public interest, not the private sector.

I am a child and product of Robert Moses. The New York City that I was born and raised in was that of Robert Moses. The New York City that I love and miss was the design of Robert Moses. I used to go twice a year to Jones Beach. I am fan of the New York Mets baseball club and Shea Stadium is part of my identity. Today Shea Stadium has been torn down and replaced with Citi Field named after CitiBank. My favourite park in the world is Flushing Meadows Park. The first ten years of my life, I lived in an anarchist city where there was no authority. Is it any wonder that I detest authority and refuse to abide to conformity? My city was destroyed by Rudy Giuliani. If Robert Moses had been around during the Giuliani years, he would have destroyed him. Long live Robert Moses! Long live New York!

Iran USA Video


As the outrage over the release of Libyan bomber of Pan Am flight 103 has been covered extensively by media outlets in the US, I could not help to think about another tragic civilian airplane that went down in the late 80’s. Air Flight 655 was shot down over the strait of Hormoz in 1987 by the orders of Captain William C. Rogers III.
Good old Captain Will, at the time was on a mission of protecting the interest of Sadam Hussein and the brutal Iraqi dictator to help in the fight against Iran. The mission of mercy for Sadam’s brutal regime took place under the orders of President Reagan and Bush senior. When Captain Will returned back to the US after downing the Iranian airliner, he and his crew tried to deceive the public around the course of events that brought down flight 655. Captain Will and the crew of Vincennes C-49 caused the deliberate death of 290 innocent civilians and tried to cover it up to its best of ability.

As the world is outraged over the release Lockerbie bomber do to humanitarian reasons, I wonder how they can be so silent on the celebration of death of 290 civilians aboard an Iranian airliner. The USS Vincennes and its proud crew celebrated its terrorist acts in San Diego California with a 3 day reunion. Three day party at the San Diego Bayside Holiday Inn with multiple cocktail hours, and a pool side luau. I have attached the fun agenda to this post. Please also note the memorabilia display on both days.
I just wished we as Americans showed the same outrage for crimes against humanity when committed by our own men in uniform. If this attitude continues in 20 years the proud prison guards of Abu Ghraib will be holding a reunion to celebrate the injustice and crimes against humanity that they have committed and the US media will kindly look the other way.
The memorabilia of these brave men and women of Abui Ghraib and USS Vincent are forever engrained in hearts and minds of the awakened. What amazes me is that these men and women do not even acknowledge the death of 290 civilians on its web site. Not one word about the actions that caused the downing of Iranian civilian airliner. Not one apology for the deception and lies told after the fact. Nothing except for the brave medals that they have received from the US government in performing the duty assigned to them.

Scott Lustig, the air-warfare coordinator, received the Navy Commendation Medal, often given for acts of heroism or meritorious service.In 1990, Rogers was awarded the Legion of Merit “for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding service as commanding officer … from April 1987 to May 1989.”

The C49 Party

The C49 Party

2009 Reunion | San Diego, California
August 27th through August 30th
The first annual USS Vincennes (CG-49) reunion has been scheduled to be held in San Diego, CA (the first homeport of VINCENNES) at the Holdiay Inn Bayside hotel.
We are still planning the events of each day and will provide the details as we progress through the coming weeks. Review the FAQ or contact us with any questions you might have.
Schedule of Events:
August 27th – We have set aside a block of 30 rooms for arrival on Thursday, other blocked rooms will be available for Friday arrivals. We will adjust these numbers as necessary, but early reservations are encouraged to assist us in tracking attendee numbers and ensuring we are not charged for unused block rooms
• Early check-in / Last-minute Registration
• Hospitality Room will be available for gathering after noon – cocktails and drinks will be available.
August 28th
• Early check-in / Last-minute Registration
• Reception / Welcome
• cocktails and drinks will be available.
• Memorbabilia Display
• Hospitality Room will be available for gathering – cocktails and drinks will be available.
August 29th
• Optional group Tour of the USS Midway Museum
• Free time
• Hospitality Room will be available for gathering – cocktails and drinks will be available.
• Memorabilia Display
• Luau Banquet/ Meal Poolside
August 30th
• Farewell breakfast
• Business Meeting – Should we formalize an association? Future reunion discussions
• Depart

Global issues Iran Israel Palestine Racism refugee Religion USA


The Iranian government members favorite phrase is that they will take the course of action for the best interest of the regime,”Maslahat Regime “. They never once mention what is in the best interest of the people. What they are really concerned about is staying in power. The revolutionary guard of 120 thousand and the selected mullahs control an enormous wealth of Iran’s natural resources. Unlike North Korea, Iran is a rich country with the largest natural gas reserves in the world. Not to mention oil and its strategic position as a gateway to energy for the rest of the world.

The conservative government in Iran is losing its grip on power and the old revolutionary rhetoric is no longer justifying the systematic pillaging of the nation’s wealth at the hands of the few. For the Iranian government to sustain the message of anti-west and anti-democratic ideals, it needs to maintain the image of the revolution. Nothing can maintain such an image as well as confrontation with the west over its nuclear ambitions.

Appointing a defense minister who caused an uproar with the western powers is simply a step to get a military reaction from the west. Frankly, the leaders in Iran are not concerned with nuclear technology for producing energy, but to create a reaction. Any action by Israel could rally the Iranian public around the flag and regime once more. This could guarantee that they will continue to be the rulers of Iran for many years to come.

In the case of Israel, as a theocracy and an undemocratic society, a free and democratic Iran would pose a serious challenge to the principles of Zionism. How could the Muslims have a democratic society and the western backed Israel continues to oppress the millions of Arabs and Palestinians based on ethnic nepotism? It would simply be a shock to the state of Israel if Iranians enjoyed a truly democratic society. God forbid the Zionist movement would lose its muscle and grip of power by no longer having Palestinians as its enemy and needing to find a way to provide them with equal rights and protection.

This of course would also be against the interest of the religious right in the United States that have banked on an end of the world scenario for the past 100 years by supporting the state of Israel and shipping Jews from all corners of the world looking for a piece of bread and a better life to the occupied territories.

The conservative governments in Iran and Israel will both benefit from the next conflict in the region. They can both continue with the oppressive techniques that they use to stay in power. Conservative governments and ideologies are similar in action and oppression of freedom and democratic rights. They even reward each other at every opportunity that presents itself.

In case of Iranian government, the U.S. hostages that had been held for 444 days are set free on the day that Reagan and Bush got into office. It was the same conservative government during the Reagan years lead by Bush senior that helped Iran acquire weapons and bring drugs to the U.S. under the sanctions of Iran-Contra and Oliver North.

The Obama administration is dealing with multiple enemies at once. The conservatives and the evangelicals in this country who keep fueling settlements in the occupied territories, the conservative government in Israel that continues to benefit from land grabbing from the Palestinians in the occupied territory; and finally the mullahs and the revolutionary guard of Iran who want to continue to stay in power at any cost to the detriment of the population.

The question is how can this administration put pressure on these conservative governments and elements? What can be done stop the rise of tension and military conflict in the region?

First, stop the flow of money by the religious right for new settlement activity to Israel. If Hamas is a terrorist organization so are the folks that continue to build homes in the occupied territories. How could we allow the religious right in the United States to fund taking land from the Palestinians and not call it a terrorist act?

Second, stop funding Israel conservative military government. The EU and the U.S. stopped all aid to Hamas even though it was a democratically elected government simply because they did not condone the policy of Hamas. So why can’t this government stop funding Israel until all settlements have been turned over to Palestinians in the occupied territory and international borders and UN resolutions are respected by all parties?

Once the life style and the money is no longer provided by American tax payers they will reconsider their actions and be willing to negotiate.

Finally, Obama administration should ask for sanctions at the UN and freeze all accounts of the Iranian revolutionary guards, mullahs and restrict them and their family members from traveling abroad.

All these conservative Muslims, Jews and Christians use religion for personal enrichment. Ideologies are saved for the masses and the wealth is kept in the hands of the few men of cloth. If we cut the wings and the source of funding, they will all be forced to walk to the negotiations table.

Global issues Iran USA


Rod Sharif reports: “Tomorrow, Nov 4 is the Anniversary of the US Embassy Occupation which for the first time might turn GREEN! The SMS network is already shut down in Tehran and Internet speeds have been reduced! Facebook is off limits. Tehran’s Metro will stop service tomorrow at 12 Noon! Many universities around the country have been shutdown since few days ago. And tonight once again for the first time we are hearing Allaho Akbar on the rooftops!”
Please join our shared cause to end censorship




Capitalism: A Love Party, new app for celebrating the good old fashioned world order that affected our lives in so many ways!

San Francisco, CA, October 1, 2009– We are proud to announce the launch of our new Facebook application “Capitalism: A Love Party” created by the author of The Age of Nepotism, Vahid Razavi and the creative team working on the We chose to breed life into our latest app at this particular moment in time with a strong reason. As a team that is constantly working to make our website not only a promotional vessel for the book, but also a platform where we can try and build awareness of the social issues affecting our world, we are in great support of the work of director Michel Moore, and his new movie Capitalism: A Love Story. Our application “Capitalism: A Love Party” announces the screenings of Moore’s new movie across the States. Through this app people can inform themselves about the movie premiers and invite their friends to see it.
In addition to this, we decided to organize preemptive parties for the movie in every major city in the States to celebrate all we love and hate about capitalism and enjoy good company, delicious appetizers and fine wine, hoping to start a trend that will spread throughout the country. First party of the kind will be held at San Francisco’s Art People Gallery on October the 2nd. For more information on this event, follow the link Anyone who finds this idea appealing, and would like to organize a “Capitalism: A Love Party” in their hometown can do so by using our Facebook application designed specifically for spreading the national capitalist parties across our country. We decided to reward the top 50 party organizers in the U.S. who make the highest number of invites with a free copy of the book The Age of Nepotism.

Although we support and respect his work, we are in no way affiliated with Mr. Michael Moore or his latest movie.

For additional information, contact

Global issues Racism Religion World


This is the conclusion of a two part series on Poland.

What is wrong with Poland? Why is the country so reactionary? Why is it one of the few countries in the developed world which castrates men accused of sexual assault? Why was it the first country in the EU to ban pornography? Why is Poland the most anti-Semitic country in Europe?

Poland is the most pro-American country in Europe, if not the world, on both the governmental level and among the general population. It is embarrassing and sickening how much Poland acts like a submissive woman to the United States. Though there are many admirable things about the United States culturally, Poland celebrates and emulates everything negative about the U.S. Warsaw has a statue of Ronald Reagan in the city centre.

More cities in Poland plan to tear down Soviet monuments celebrating the victory over Nazism and replace them with statues of Reagan. (I wonder how they would react if they were aware that Reagan at one time was a communist supporter back in the 1940s and actually applied to be a member of the Communist Party USA.) The crimes of Reagan are too numerous to mention but he represents everything which Poland embraces. Reagan represented all of the worst traits of America: bigotry, provincialism, turbo neo-liberalism and aggressive militarism. Indeed, the United States confused many Poles when Barack Obama was elected. Many Poles lost respect for the U.S. after his election.

It was not surprising that Reagan and Pope John Paul II were close political allies and worked together to overthrow the dictatorship in Poland. Pope John Paul II was reactionary through and through. He took the Catholic Church backwards out of the 20th century and pursued a crusade to overturn all of the political, social and cultural advances made since The Enlightenment. He was an incorrigible misogynist. He advanced the most primitive ideologies concerning sexuality. His positions on HIV/AIDS were despicable as they were irresponsible (anti-contraception, anti-birth control, etc.) Where was Pope John Paul from? He was from Poland of course!

Few would disagree that the Stalinist dictatorships in Eastern Europe were deplorable and that their overthrow was a positive development. However, unlike the Czech Republic and Hungary, which embraced Democracy and implemented human rights and pursued egalitarianism, Poland has impeded human rights. Equality is officially denounced in Poland. Any advocacy of equality is denounced and dismissed as “communist.” Inequality is the official doctrine of contemporary Polish politics. For Poland, Equality=Communism, Freedom=Inequality.

Moreover, unlike The Czech Republic and Hungary which still have relatively large Jewish populations living in Prague and Budapest, there are very few Jews living in Poland. That country has a vicious history of anti-Semitism which stands out from the gruesome oppression that Jews have suffered under historically in Europe. I once had a girlfriend from Poland. She was Catholic but she often endured anti-Semitic attacks in Poland. I asked a person in Poland why Jews were so hated. The  following exchange was typical:

“Jews have caused us lots of problems.”

“Such as?”

“Many problems! Everything bad that has happened to Poland was the fault of the Jews.”

Another variant of this theme, which is shared by many, is that the Jews were responsible for the invasion of the country by Nazi Germany. If Poland had not had so many Jews in the first place, the argument goes, then the Nazis would have never invaded.

The final difference between Poland from Hungary and the Czech Republic is the power and influence of the Catholic Church. The vast majority of Czechs are atheists. Hungarians are more or less indifferent and secular. In Poland, an absolute majority attend Mass regularly. Ever since the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century and especially since 1848, the Catholic Church has been largely discredited across Europe. Its crimes against humanity are too great and extensive. No one who studies history would ever argue that the institution of the Catholic Church was a progressive force for peace or liberation. (There is a strain within the Church in the Third World known as Liberation Theology but was ruthlessly suppressed by Pope John Paul II) In Poland, the Church is seen as liberating the country from oppression. It’s beyond the comprehension of most Poles as to why the Czechs do not attend church or why the institution of the Catholic Church is opposed and despised by activists for peace, justice and equality.

Poland is one of the most violent countries in the EU. It ranks near the top for the number of racial assaults and acts of racial violence in the EU. This accounts for the reason why most Black males in Poland rarely seen in public alone and always walk in pairs or groups of up to 5. It’s dangerous for Black males to go out alone in Poland. Poland is also distinguished for sexism and misogyny. Sexism is in every society but in Poland it is so pronounced that even I as a straight male noticed it. I do not know how women cope.

One could write a doctorate dissertation documenting and highlighting the innumerable crimes against decency, justice, human rights, not to mention common sense committed in Poland. If Poland were a small and insignificant country, it could be ignored and laughed at. The opposite is true. Poland is the most enthusiastic member of NATO. Poland was the most fervent backer of the illegal US/UK war against Iraq. Indeed, Poland has the third largest military contingent in Iraq. The greatest danger of Poland is its keenness to provoke  war with Russia. Poland wants to settle old scores with Russia. It goes back beyond the U.S.S.R to the time when Eastern Poland was colonised under Tsarist Russia. These hateful and spiteful resentments of Poland are not only infantile but dangerous to the future of the world.

Poland is attempting to drag, kick and cajole the US and NATO into war with Russia. Poland insists on having the ill-conceived missile defence project on its soil. Poland not only wants anti-ballistic weapons but it also wants American nuclear weapons on its soil aimed at Russia. Poland whined and cried demanding that the US send troops to occupy it. There are very few, if any examples, I know of in recent history when one country has demanded another country to occupy it militarily. The US has acquiesced and 3,000 soldiers will be sent  to Poland by this summer. If a conflict erupts between NATO and Russia which results in nuclear war, Poland will be responsible for it (unless the country of Georgia beats them to the punch). Human existence as we know it could be wiped out by a stupid, backwards and spiteful country. God damn Poland!




9 years have passed since the publication of “The New Sins” by David Byrne . The book which was initially released in May, 2001 has been reissued. It has proven to be the seminal book of the previous decade and is sure to be ranked as one of the 21st century classics.
“The New Sins” was released only 4 months before September 11 and the subsequent events since and the book has prescience. David Byrne has mistakingly been labelled as a “Post-Modern” artist. It would be more correct to call him a Post-Modern critic. That is a critic of Post-Modernism. The New Sins is a scathing critique of Western Post-Modern society.

The book starts off with a hilarious description of its function. It is “a laptop for the soul’ which, ‘like a porno magazine, a home-cooked meal or a strand of DNA’ can be used at any time. David Byrne replaces the money-lenders and whores of Babylon with ‘graphic designers, website managers… women who have married stupid, well-endowed but ridiculous men and Nobel Prize winners’.

The premise of The New Sins starts:
“What was evil, despised and abhorrent yesterday is admirable and cheered today. The wealthy were once looked upon with suspicion, with the assumption that unusual wealth implied some unethical activity, the gains probably ill-gotten. But now this is a mark of virtue. The rich, the ostentatious, the loud, the crass and the indifferent are looked up to as models to be emulated. Only the old fogey would hold fast to childhood and traditional values.”

From there David Byrne begins his thesis:

“One may be tempted to laugh at the suggestion that one’s most treasured virtues are indeed sins… One may, however, upon reflection, come to accept this fact and then find a strange, calm center, a new model, a place of Astonishment and Peace.”

He describes Hell which is basically Western post-modernist society.

“The levels of hell are filled with the virtuous, the nice, the smart and the gregarious. Here they suffer for their sins, especially the hubris of thinking that they have never committed any at all… Here we can see, on the upper levels, graphic designers, website managers and humanitarian relief workers. Their crime? Hubris. Their punishment? Equality. Everyone looks cool, fashionable and absolutely identical… Everything is perfect and unbearable.” The text also includes a revised map of The Inferno, which includes public announcement speakers in the top tiers, with human rights activists and missionaries near the bottom. (Journalists fall somewhere in them idle of the eighth circle of Hell, just below market researchers, while serious pop musicians like Byrne reside in the fifth circle.)

So what are the New Sins according to David Byrne? They are: Charity, Sense of humour, Beauty, Thrift, Ambition, Hope, Intelligence/Knowledge, Contentment, Sweetness, Honesty and Cleanliness.

Charity is a means of exerting ‘not-so-subtle control over another party’. People like Bill Gates “trample on the poor and weak with money.” “If sins can be bought and sold, where does it end? Can anyone buy his way out of a cosmic jam? Do all rich men and women, or those who at least inherit their daddy’s money, go to heaven? Is God an entrepreneur?” This is the most devastating critique of capitalist mentality since Leon Trotsky .

Sense of humour is a sin because “humour is the snap, the breaking point, the straw that breaks the camel’s back and allows us to turn misery into something else. What is that something else? A cackling, ape-like non-verbal noise.” Obama has confirmed this by going on late night TV comedy programs telling jokes to as Byrne says “keep a keeps a hapless population in stitches.”

Beauty is a sin because it ‘creates the illusion that all is well’. Therein lies the deception.

Thrift s a sin because it denies people goods and pleasures that they want. Saving money for a rainy day is such an example of Anglo-Saxon capitalist society. Serbs don’t save money and are notorious spendthrifts which I believe is a good thing.

Ambition is an obvious sin as exemplified by Wall Street financiers and bankers who have caused the current economic depression.

Hope which holds more weight than all the others put together, is essentially empty wishing for order in a chaotic, unfeeling universe. Hope is the most deadly, for it ‘is for the cowardly… it deceives us into thinking that there IS narrative, linearity, and not chaos, chance and luck’. This is how the masses can remain optimistic that all is well with the world. The reality is that Hope is “a way of keeping people blinded, ignorant and servile, ignorant of the true and mystical beauty of the universe, a universe which is meaningless and amoral.”

Byrne’s most provactive sin is Intelligence/Knowledge. Why? Because the more you know, the more you know what you don’t know. Self-knowledge is dangerous, the more one knows oneself, the smaller one’s opinion of oneself.

“Contentment is a feeling which comes about because of three conditions.

1. One has completed a task successfully.
2. One has been flattered by an associate.
3. One has finished a large meal.”

In other words, Contentment is self congratulatory. Americans suffer most from this. Americans believe they live in the best country in the world but based on being content of putting men on the moon and electing a Black President. But does this make it the best country in the world? Why are Americans so content with their rotten society?

Sweetness is a sin because it conceals the bitter reality of life. Politicians try to be sweet when they run. McDonald’s hamburgers are fake food full of toxins but are tasty because they mostly contain sugar. In the West, politicians offer the population candy in order to pacify them as they proceed to rob and enslave them. Byrne writes: “One would do well to be suspicious of all things sweet and cuddly”

Honesty is a sin because it presumes that there is an essential truth. Love is a lie. “Our loved ones demand honesty, but what they really want is better fiction”

Cleanliness “is not next to godliness.” In fact, vaccines, excessive bathing, clean fingers have done to spread more disease than prevent them. “Impurities create natural immunities. (Post)Modern life in its sterile bubble is truly a sin against nature.”

The book concludes by declaring that “Words are no good,” the text states, “They’re unreliable. Untrustworthy. It should be obvious by now that they won’t stay put.”He then launches a blistering attack on “Spin Doctors, Hype Merchants, TV Pundits and Talk Show Experts” Because of them the world has been “beguiled, bewitched, enchanted, charmed, entertained, enthralled, delighted and captivated”. With unusual perception Byrne lashes against those who say “Shopping is Democracy.” In the weeks after 9/11 former New York Mayor Guiliani urged city residents to “keep on shopping to preserve democracy.” His successor Michael Bloomberg urged residents to go out Christmas shopping in spite of one of the worst blizzards in New York history rather than advising them to stay home.

As this nightmare of the previous decade closed with a less promising one ahead, “The New Sins” is a must read book for those feeling isolated, frustrated and helpless in the current social and political environment.

Readers might be confused upon first reading. The danger is that many will not give it a second chance. The book must be read multiple times before the nuances and full contours are found. At first, the reader isn’t sure whether to take it seriously or not. It’s a dark satire filled with subversive subtlety. Some might find Byrne’s accompanying photography on every other page more captivating than the text. The photographic images are subtle and nuanced with endless deep levels.

Overall, “The new Sins” is a contemporary masterpiece of art. David Byrne has stamped art of the 21st Century. It is a must have book on the library shelf, coffee table or even in the bathroom. Whether the reader likes it or not, it’s sure to leave a lasting impression.

Global issues World


Europe’s Greek tragedy is reaching the climax of its ever thickening plot. Tensions, flare-ups, angry undiplomatic outbursts from politicians, overt undercutting and tripping of feet have rumbled across the EU. Germany has told Greece to drop dead. The German government has taken upon itself the role of the sole decision maker of who can stay and go in the EU. Germany’s bossy attitude has bristled Greece, raised eyebrows in the UK and has enraged France. German actions of the past week is a case study on how to make enemies and antagonise people.

Last week, German Chancellor Angela Merkel effectively killed the Euro as a viable currency by refusing and blocking emergency financial aid to the ailing Greek economy. Merkel told Greece not to expect a Euro cent and to go to the IMF for assistance. Other German government ministers and officials from the central bank have told Greece that it should go bankrupt and ultimately be expelled from the Euro currency zone.
Greece doesn’t want to leave and Prime Minister George Papandreou has publicly stated that Greece isn’t going anywhere. Meanwhile, France is agitating for a coordinated EU bailout for Greece. France fears that any Eurozone member state which begs the IMF for loans will give the United States direct influence over the financial governance within the EU. Worse, should the IMF assist an Euro currency country, the credibility of the Euro as a stable currency will be lost. Such a loss of confidence would be the death knell for the European Union as monetary and economic union. Unfortunately, French President Sarkozy has so many domestic problems which have forced him to fight for his political life. Sarkozy lacks the wherewithal to challenge Germany.
For its part, Germany doesn’t give a damn knowing full well the weakness of the French government. Every official statement from France regarding Greece is quickly and officially repudiated by Germany. Tomorrow (Thursday 25 March) will see the heads of all EU governments attend a summit in Brussels. Greece, France and Italy want the Greek crisis to be on the agenda. Germany says no as it sees no reason for Greece to be on the agenda. After all, as the German establishment has reiterated over the past month, the Greeks are lazy and irresponsible people. They have no one to blame but themselves for their troubles. Why should the EU concern itself? The French and British media are fuming at Germany as it has finally dawned upon wide layers of European society that Germany has not only dominated Europe economically but is using its weight to dominate the continent politically.
The increasingly sharp tenor directed at Germany is responded with bellicose rebuttals. Germany has proclaimed that it has the unilateral power and authority to make or break the EU. This has elicited explosions of outrage in the UK. The British Conservative Party, which is widely expected to win the upcoming parliamentary elections in May, has made anti-German chauvinism its battle cry. Nearly half of its elected politicians and ranking party figures are not openly calling for an unilateral UK withdrawal from the EU but also for trade war and economic blockade against Germany. A Conservative British government aims to shovel more dirt over the EU coffin.
The current tensions between the UK and Germany date back to the Panic of 2008. Angela Merkel singled out the UK and US for blame as the cheif culprits for the financial meltdown. She cited a lack of strong government regulation which allowed the shady speculations and illegal financial schemes to plummet the world into the deepest recession since the 1930s. The German Finance Minister at the time insisted that Germany, through the European Commission, should effectively monitor and regulate the financial industry in the UK. The verbal provocation caused Britain get its back up. The UK doesn’t use the Euro currency and is exempted from many provisions of the EU. Britain regards its currency and financial system as its last scrap of sovereignty. Any foreign control over how it does business, particularly from Germany, is taken short of a declaration of war. Expect to see ego clashes and stormy meetings between European politicians during the course of this year.
Germany has made the worst fears of Europe come true since reunification in 1990. Many countries were leery of entering into a political union with Germany, fearing it would result in their subordination to the largest country in Europe. To reassure them, Germany abandoned its very strong and stable Deutsch Mark in return for the creation of the Euro. However, Germany penned the treaties setting stringent rules such as debt limits per ratio to the GPD. The Greek crisis has exposed the imbalanced leverage Germany holds over the smaller and poorer countries of Europe.
Tomorrow’s summit in Brussels will effectively put the final nail in the coffin for the EU. It will also lead to irreconciable differences between Germany and France which eventually will lead to open conflict. With Greece unable to finance its debt in the coming weeks, a new stage of the economic crisis will follow. On the tails of this will come an escalation of political and social crisis. The Countdown to EU self destruction continues apace.

Global issues USA


This is the first of a 3 Part series on the dearth of progressive politics and activism within the Western World.

What a difference a century makes! Within the United States, the 20th century was noted for further gains of equality and moving towards fulfilling the promise of true Democracy. The end of the second decade finally established women as “persons” and thus the right to vote. Workers, who had for decades been subjected to bloody repression at the hands of Industrial magnates as well as State and Federal governments alike, won the right to organise themselves into trade unions and collective bargaining. By the mid 1950s, laws enforcing racial segregation in all spheres of society were beginning to be overthrown reaching their climax ten years later. The decade of the 1960s witnessed mass movements against war and compulsory military conscription. The end of the same decade gave birth to the Sexual Revolution . The 1970s ushered in the Second Wave of Feminism which resulted in the legal right for women to have abortions. 18 year olds obtained the right to vote. The military draft was abolished. Richard Nixon was the first and only American President to openly say he supportws of “Black Power “. Nixon signed into law the most comprehensive environmental protection laws. It was under Nixon that racial minorities and women obtained positions in universities as well as government or government funded institutions under special regulations which set a determined percentage of splaces for them. Apart from the tangible social and political gains, the 20th century produced some of the most advance politically conscious art. It was during the 1930s when films against the lynching of Blacks in the American South were screened. As the country was in the throes of the Great Depression, films and books accurately presented the hardships endured by most citizens. Notable figures such as the writer John Steinbeck and film maker/actor Orson Welles , just to name a couple, participated in the cultural milieu to raise consciousness about injustices of American society. Rock music was the spark which ignited the coming of the Sexual Revolution and helped to facilitate racial integration. By the late 1960s Motown served as the soundtrack to the Civil Rights battles raging across the country. By the mid 1970s, mostly as a result of the excesses of Nixon, Hollywood produced hundreds of anti-authority films and TV shows. The police were commonly depicted as corrupt, lazy and stupid. Starting with“Bonnie and Clyde” (1967) many heroes were the bank robbers and outlaws while the police and figures of authority were depicted as villains. Viewers always cheered for the outlaws and relished in the setbacks and defeats for the police. The film which exemplifies this trend most is “The Blues Brothers” (1980).

The most important point not to miss was the appetite and desire for social justice amongst the population itself. In the big metropolitan cities of the Northern and Western United States, many people identified themselves as “Liberals”. They supported Civil Rights and racial equality. The were opposed to the police state terror methods which were employed against civil rights and anti-war activists. Many supported the passage to the Equal Rights Amendment . In social settings, individuals would converse and argue about politics and the affairs of the day. The arguments were mostly over minor details of divergence but they were in general agreement within the frame of liberal politics.

Indeed, the last point cannot be overstated. American society, for most of the 20th century was social. Neighbours talked to one another from front porches. Families listened to the radio together and would often discuss what they heard. As the country went through convulsions of the upheavals in the latter half of the 1960s, people would discuss the issues and problems of the day with one another. In New York City , for example, thousands of people went to Central Park on the day of Martin Luther King’s assassination just to talk and console one another. TV programming had set aside many hours for community and public affairs broadcasts. TV news broadcasts more or less reported on the issues of the day. Protests and demonstrations were shown on TV screens. The horrors of the Vietnam War came directly into the living rooms of Americans. Talk shows were a different fare from the Trash TV presented today by Jerry Springer or Ricki Lake. Talk shows were serious and sober affairs where political activists, intellectuals and academics participated in panel discussions where debates and exchanges were civil.

Things changed dramatically begining in 1979. A right wing backlash against the political gains of the previous three decades began to manifest. Perhaps, the most dramatic was the anti-Disco movement which peaked during the summer of 1980. Tens of thousands of disco records were burned and blown up in rallies reminiscent of Nazi Germany in the 1930s. The Iranian Revolution and the take over of the US Embassy revived a jingoistic reactionary nationalism not seen since the 1950s. The Republican Party nominated Ronald Reagan as its Presidential candidate. Reagan began his campaign by visiting a white supremacist festival in Philadelphia, Mississippi. The first organisation to endorse Reagan was the Ku Kux Klan . Reagan capitalised on the resentments felt in many quarters of White Middle America,who felt their privileged to be in danger as a result of the gains of Black Americans. The anti-Disco movement was first and foremost a racist movement. Disco music was just a code word for Black music. Never mind the fact that there were just as many white Disco acts as Black, Disco was the cultural indicator that the country was turning Black. Reagan ran his campaign as if the year was 1948. He was elected by a landslide.

Still, despite the setback of the election of a far-right wing President, Liberalism was still alive. Both houses of the US Congress were controlled by Liberal Democrats. The midterm elections of 1982 resulted in the victories of Liberal politicians. Though, talk radio on the AM frequency presented more reactionary presenters, there were still many liberal personalities on the air,most notably Studs Terkel.Liberals weren’t happy with Reagan. There was still many critical voices against Reagan heard on TV and radio broadcasts as well as in print.

Something went horribly awry in 1984. Reagan was re-elected by an even larger landslide victory than in 1980. He won over many liberals and most shockingly, he received the support of tens of thousands of voters who had marched with Blacks in the South for civil rights. Many activists who had opposed the Vietnam War voted for Reagan. What was perhaps most shocking was the support Reagan received from Eldridge Cleaver, once the Minister of Information for theBlack Panthers. 1984 was the beginning of the irreversible decline of American Liberalism.

There are many possible reasons for the support that self-described Liberals Reagan received. By the mid 1980s, the US seemed to enjoy a Golden Age. Though wages had stagnated since 1977, the purchasing power of Americans seemed to be greater than ever thanks mostly in part to the explosion of the use of credit cards. The 1980s witnessed the beginning of the IT age. Most children, even those from poor backgrounds, had their own video game consoles. Colour TVs, out of reach for most Americans just a decade before, was now found in the living rooms in millions of American households. The US was at peace or seemed to be. The country was not involved in any military adventures, even though the government was financing dirty secret proxy wars in Central America and Afghanistan . Most Americans had thought that the race problem had been sorted once and for all. By the end of the 1980s, nearly half of the cities had elected Black mayors. Black enrollment at universities and colleges was at the highest than any other time in American history. Affirmative Action elevated tens of thousands of Blacks into the white collar professions.  Liberals saw race no longer as a problem. Rather, they considered the masses of Blacks living impoverished ghettos as an economic issue that had to be addressed. Liberals who were still in opposition to Reagan criticized his transfer of wealth from poor to rich would cite the plight of inner-city Blacks.

1988 entrenched the decay of Liberalism with the election of George H. Bush , the father of W. Bush. Bush, Sr was elected by opposing liberalism ideologically and by running ads implying if the Democrats won the presidency, Black men would rape and kill white women. (See Willie Horton Ad ). Michael Dukakis was one of the last liberal politician to run for President for the Democrats which paved the way to the rise of the anti-liberal wing of the Democrats led by Bill Clinton and Al Gore.

By 1992, Liberalism was in retreat. After the New Hampshire Primary, Bill Clinton who was at the time the Governor of Arkansas personally oversaw the execution of a mentally disabled  Black man named Ricky Ray Rector . Bill Clinton ran on a platform against welfare and other social safety net programs and supported capital punishment. That same year, Rudy Giuliani , who was narrowly defeated by then New York Mayor David Dinkins , organised a riot of 10,000 police against the Black mayor . The Liberals of the city were silent.

1993 was when the knife was stabbed into the heart of liberalism. Giuliani, who received not a word of criticism from the Liberal media for his role in the racist police riot the previous year, ran for Mayor on an openly racist platform. His margin of victory was provided by the white supremacist New York City Borough of Staten Island. Liberalism staggered on its dying legs around abortion rights. Despite of Bill Clinton”s right wing campaign promises which were the antithesis of everything Liberalism stood for, Liberals supported Clinton to preserve abortion rights.

1994 saw the death of liberalism. The OJ Simpson case sent American society in social convulsions. The media dropped all pretences of being objective and neutral and peddled in hysteria. Tabloid newspapers and local TV news broadcasts were filled only with sensationalist stories on crime. Despite the FBI crime stats indicating sharp decrease in the crime rate, most Americans perceived the country to be full of murders and rapists. The wall to wall and non-stop coverage of Simpson being charged for murdering his white wife was enough to propel Newt Gingrich and the far-right wing forces of the Republican Party into controlling both houses of the US Congress. Liberalism was eradicated from American national politics once and for all. The 1994 elections saw the defeat of Liberal icon Mario Cuomo in the New York State.gubernatorial race that year. George W. Bush was elected as governor of Texas.

In 1996, all liberal perspectives and opinions were banished from the established newspapers and transmission broadcasters. The 1996 Telecommunications Act , lifted restrictions and regulations concerning media. Now, Rupert Murdoch was allowed to own newspapers and tv channels in the same market which had been prohibited in the Communications Act of 1934. The main three television networks were taken over by conglomerates. Ted Turner and Disney had managed to consolidate their media enterprises. In this climate, only the views of the far-right and the corporations were heard. Liberal voices disappeared and if they did appear, they were subjected to abuse and ridicule.

Culturally, TV programs and films followed the turn to the right. Films like “Forrest Gump”  (1994) and “True Lies” (1994) peddled idiocy and racist imperialist militarism for entertainment. With the exception of “Bad Lieutenant” (1992) and “Natural Born Killers” (1994), Hollywood stopped producing anti-authority films. Indeed, Hollywood began to churn out more and more police state films and TV shows such as “NYPD Blue” which glorified police brutality.

Liberalism was finally buried in 1997 with the re-election of Guiliani. In spite of sacking nearly half of the city’s Black Civil Servants, along with a 60% increase in police brutality underlined with a sharp increase of random executions and torture of Black men at the hands of the police Guiliani was re-elected with the majority support of Liberals. This in spite of inequality approaching Third World levels Guiliani won the approval of liberals. The first act of Guiliani was to abolish the New York City Human Rights Commission. Liberals stopped thinking critically, closed their eyes to reality and embraced fascism.

In 2008, many thought that Liberalism would resurrect from the dead in the shape of Barack Obama. Again, no one paid attention as he spelt out clearly that he would escalate and expand the Afghan War into Pakistan. Obama sounded like a liberal but paying close attention to his words revealed deeply entrenched conservatism. The last remaining Liberals are either disillusioned or self delusional. Barack Obama , more than anything else, represents the fall of American Liberalism.

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